Safety of bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis.
ABSTRACT In this review 4 experts consider the major safety concerns relating to bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis. Specific topics covered are skeletal safety (particularly with respect to atypical fractures and delayed healing), gastrointestinal intolerance, hypocalcemia, acute-phase (i.e., postdose) reactions, chronic musculoskeletal pain, renal safety, and cardiovascular safety (specifically, atrial fibrillation).
- SourceAvailable from: Jayachandran Venkatesan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases that occur due to imbalance during bone formation and bone resorption. About half of all women over the age of 50 will have a fracture on the hip, wrist, or vertebra. Research and treatment of osteoporosis are challenging for researchers and physicians. There are several types of treatments for osteoporosis including most famous bisphosphonates, estrogen agonists/antagonists, parathyroid hormone, estrogen therapy, hormone therapy, and recently developed RANKL inhibition. In the recent days, much attention has been paid for marine algal extracts and compounds for osteoporosis treatment. In this chapter, we extensively deal with marine algae compounds and their rich mineral constituents for osteoporosis treatment.Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2011; 64:417-27. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-387669-0.00032-6
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonate treatment and its aetiopathogenic association with aseptic osteonecrosis of the jaw is one of the more prominent public health issues today. The aim of this review is to see into the mechanisms of bisphosphonate effects on bones described in literature (anti-osteoclastic activity, cytotoxicity, antiangiogenesis, genetic factors, and imbalance between osteoclasts and osteoblasts). Bisphosphonate treatment is the dominant cause of jaw necrosis. Epidemiological data show an exclusive incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients who took one or a combination of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. Risk factors vary by the bisphosphonate potency (particularly risky are the highly potent pamidronate and zoledronate, which are given intravenously), dosage, duration of treatment, and the illness. Jaw necrosis is most common in oncology patients, and only 5 % in patients with osteoporosis. From a dental-medical point of view, a good oral health is important because osteonecrosis often appears after a periodontal or oral surgical procedure.
Conference Paper: Unequal error protection for wireless ATM applications[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Variable rate error protection will be required to support the broad range of quality of service (QoS) requirements for multimedia services and other applications that are likely to be encountered in future asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)-based wireless networking systems. Performance results are presented for several forward error correction (FEC) coding schemes that can provide unequal error protection (UEP) for messages on the wireless access segment of an ATM-based wireless networking system. UEP is based on punctured (or shortened) convolution, Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH), and Reed-Solomon (RS) coding. A rate-compatibility restriction is imposed on the encoder to allow for the use of a single encoder for each type of code, even when the code rates are changed. The example air interface packet (AIP) formats used in this study are the types that are envisaged for various flavors of wireless ATM. It is shown that UEP at the wireless physical layer is a feasible strategy to provide variable rate error protection for the types of services and applications that are likely to be encountered in future ATM-based wireless networking systemsGlobal Telecommunications Conference, 1996. GLOBECOM '96. 'Communications: The Key to Global Prosperity; 12/1996