[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that the tyrosine kinase Src plays an important role in the hormonal regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) via cyclic AMP (cAMP). Src has also been proposed to mediate signals downstream of nerve growth factor (NGF). Here, we report that the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) induced the phosphorylation of Src at residue serine17 (S17) in multiple cell types including PC12, Hek293, AtT-20 and CHO cells. In PC12 cells, Src phosphorylation on S17 participates in the activation of the small G protein Rap1 by both cAMP and NGF. In these cells, Rap1 is required for cAMP/PKA signaling to ERKs and also for the sustained activation of ERKs by NGF. The activation of Rap1 by both cAMP and NGF was blocked by PP2, an inhibitor of Src family kinases, and by a Src mutant incapable of being phosphorylated by PKA (SrcS17A), consistent with the requirement of PKA phosphorylation of Src at S17 in these actions. PP2 and SrcS17A also inhibited the Rap1-dependent activation of ERKs by both agents. These results strongly indicate that PKA phosphorylation of Src at S17 is essential for cAMP and NGF signaling in PC12 cells and identify PKA as an important downstream target of NGF. PKA phosphorylation of Src may therefore be required for Rap1 activation in PC12 cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cerebellar granule cells, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade mediates multiple functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In these cells, ERKs are activated by diverse stimuli, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating protein (PACAP), depolarization induced by elevated extracellular potassium (KCl), and the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Extensive studies in neuronal cell lines have implicated the small G proteins Ras and Rap1 in the activation of ERKs by cAMP, PACAP, and KCl. However, the requirement of Ras and Rap1 in these pathways in cerebellar granule cells has not been addressed. In this study, we utilize multiple biochemical assays to determine the mechanisms of action and requirement of Ras and Rap1 in cultured cerebellar granule cells. We show that both Ras and Rap1 can be activated by cAMP or PACAP via protein kinase (PKA)-dependent mechanisms. KCl activation of Ras also required PKA. Using both adenoviral and transgenic approaches, we show that Ras plays a major role in ERK activation by cAMP, PACAP, and KCl, while Rap1 also mediates activation of a selective membrane-associated pool of ERKs. Furthermore, Rap1, but not Ras, activation by PKA appears to require the action of Src family kinases.
Journal of Neurochemistry 05/2007; 101(2):470-82. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: cAMP (3',5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger that in eukaryotic cells induces physiological responses ranging from growth, differentiation, and gene expression to secretion and neurotransmission. Most of these effects have been attributed to the binding of cAMP to cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Here, a family of cAMP-binding proteins that are differentially distributed in the mammalian brain and body organs and that exhibit both cAMP-binding and guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domains is reported. These cAMP-regulated GEFs (cAMP-GEFs) bind cAMP and selectively activate the Ras superfamily guanine nucleotide binding protein Rap1A in a cAMP-dependent but PKA-independent manner. Our findings suggest the need to reformulate concepts of cAMP-mediated signaling to include direct coupling to Ras superfamily signaling.
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