[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a superfamily of enzymes that are involved in the regulation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) by controlling their rates of hydrolysis. There are 11 different PDE families and each family typically has multiple isoforms and splice variants. The PDEs differ in their structures, distribution, modes of regulation, and sensitivity to inhibitors. Since PDEs have been shown to play distinct roles in processes of emotion and related learning and memory processes, selective PDE inhibitors, by preventing the breakdown of cAMP and/or cGMP, modulate mood and related cognitive activity. This review discusses the current state and future development in the burgeoning field of PDEs in the central nervous system. It is becoming increasingly clear that PDE inhibitors have therapeutic potential for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders involving disturbances of mood, emotion, and cognition.
Handbook of experimental pharmacology 01/2011; 204(204):447-85. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-17969-3_19
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We established cell lines that stably express orphan GPCR GPR174 using CHO cells, and studied physiological and pharmacological features of the receptor. GPR174-expressing cells showed cell-cell adhesion with localization of actin filaments to cell membrane, and revealed significant delay of cell proliferation. Since the morphological changes of GPR174-cells were very similar to mock CHO cells treated with cholera toxin, we measured the concentration of intracellular cAMP. The results showed the concentration was significantly elevated in GPR174-cells. By measuring intracellular cAMP concentration in GPR174-cells, we screened lipids and nucleotides to identify ligands for GPR174. We found that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) stimulated increase in intracellular cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, phosphorylation of Erk was elevated by LysoPS in GPR174 cells. These LysoPS responses were inhibited by NF449, an inhibitor of Gα(s) protein. These results suggested that GPR174 was a putative LysoPS receptor conjugating with Gα(s), and its expression induced morphological changes in CHO cells by constitutively activating adenylyl cycles accompanied with cell conjunctions and delay of proliferation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2012; 430(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.11.046 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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