Impact of actin rearrangement and degranulation on the membrane structure of primary mast cells: a combined atomic force and laser scanning confocal microscopy investigation.
ABSTRACT Degranulation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) triggered by antigens (e.g., 2,4-dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA) and secretagogues (e.g., poly-L-lysine) was investigated by combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). This combination enables the simultaneous visualization and correlation of membrane morphology with cytoskeletal actin arrangement and intracellular granules. Two degranulation mechanisms and detailed membrane structures that directly corresponded to the two stimuli were revealed. In DNP-BSA triggered activation, characteristic membrane ridges formed in accordance with the rearrangement of underlying F-actin networks. Individual granules were visualized after they released their contents, indicating a "kiss-and-run" pathway. In BMMCs stimulated by poly-L-lysine, lamellopodia and filopodia were observed in association with the F-actin assemblies at and near the cell periphery, whereas craters were observed on the central membrane lacking F-actin. These craters represent a new membrane feature resulting from the "kiss-and-merge" granule fusion. This work provides what we believe is important new insight into the local membrane structures in correlation with the cytoskeleton arrangement and detailed degranulation processes.
Article: Scanning probe evolution in biology.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Twenty years ago the first scanning probe instrument, the scanning tunneling microscope, opened up new realms for our perception of the world. Atoms that had been abstract entities were now real objects, clearly seen as distinguishable individuals at particular positions in space. A whole family of scanning probe instruments has been developed, extending our sense of touching to the scale of atoms and molecules. Such instruments are especially useful for imaging of biomolecular structures because they can produce topographic images with submolecular resolution in aqueous environments. Instruments with increased imaging rates, lower probe-specimen force interactions, and probe configurations not constrained to planar surfaces are being developed, with the goal of imaging processes at the single-molecule level-not only at surfaces but also within three-dimensional volumes-in real time.Science 12/2003; 302(5647):1002-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor