Peptide adsorption to lipid bilayers: slow processes revealed by linear dichroism spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT The adsorption and insertion kinetics for the association of two 34-residue cyclic peptides with phosphocholine membranes have been studied using circular and linear dichroism approaches. The two peptides studied are identical with the exception of two residues, which are both tyrosine in one of the peptides and tryptophan in the other. Both peptides adopt random coil conformations in solution in the absence of membranes and do not aggregate at concentrations below 20 microM. After addition to liposome dispersions, circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that both peptides undergo an extremely rapid transformation to a beta-conformation that remains unchanged throughout the remainder of the experiment. Linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy was used to study the kinetics of membrane adsorption and insertion. The data were analyzed by nonlinear least squares approaches, leading to identification of a number of bound states and their corresponding LD spectra. Two pseudo-first order processes could be identified that were common to both peptides. The first occurred with a time constant of the order of 1 min and led to a bound state characterized by weak LD signals, with significant bands corresponding to the transitions of aromatic side chains. The second process occurred with an unusually long time constant of between 75 and 100 min, forming a state with considerably stronger positive LD absorbance in the far-ultraviolet region of the spectrum. For the tyrosine-substituted peptide, a third slow process with a long time constant (76 min) could also be delineated and was attributed to rearrangements of the peptide within the membrane.
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ABSTRACT: Beta-sheets, in the form of the beta-barrel folding motif, are found in several constitutive membrane proteins (porins) and in several microbial toxins that assemble on membranes to form oligomeric transmembrane channels. We report here a first step towards understanding the principles of beta-sheet formation in membranes. In particular, we describe the properties of a simple hydrophobic hexapeptide, acetyl-Trp-Leu5 (AcWL5), that assembles cooperatively into beta-sheet aggregates upon partitioning into lipid bilayer membranes from the aqueous phase where the peptide is strictly monomeric and random coil. The aggregates, containing 10 to 20 monomers, undergo a relatively sharp and reversible thermal unfolding at approximately 60 degreesC. No pores are formed by the aggregates, but they do induce graded leakage of vesicle contents at very high peptide to lipid ratios. Because beta-sheet structure is not observed when the peptide is dissolved in n-octanol, trifluoroethanol or sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles, aggregation into beta-sheets appears to be an exclusive property of the peptide in the bilayer membrane interface. This is an expected consequence of the hypothesis that a reduction in the free energy of partitioning of peptide bonds caused by hydrogen bonding drives secondary structure formation in membrane interfaces. But, other features of interfacial partitioning, such as side-chain interactions and reduction of dimensionality, must also contribute. We estimate from our partitioning data that the free energy reduction per residue for aggregation is about 0.5 kcal mol-1. Although modest, its aggregate effect on the free energy of assembling beta-sheet proteins can be huge. This surprising finding, that a simple hydrophobic hexapeptide readily assembles into oligomeric beta-sheets in membranes, reveals the potent ability of membranes to promote secondary structure in peptides, and shows that the formation of beta-sheets in membranes is more facile than expected. Furthermore, it provides a basis for understanding the observation that membranes promote self-association of beta-amyloid peptides. AcWL5 and related peptides thus provide a good starting point for designing peptide models for exploring the principles of beta-sheet formation in membranes.Journal of Molecular Biology 05/1998; 277(5):1091-110. · 4.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial peptides have two binding states in a lipid bilayer, a surface state S and a pore-forming state I. The transition from the S state to the I state has a sigmoidal peptide-concentration dependence indicating cooperativity in the peptide-membrane interactions. In a previous paper, we reported the transition of alamethicin measured in three bilayer conditions. The data were explained by a free energy that took into account the membrane thinning effect induced by the peptides. In this paper, the full implications of the free energy were tested by including another type of peptide, melittin, that forms toroidal pores, instead of barrel-stave pores as in the case of alamethicin. The S-to-I transitions were measured by oriented circular dichroism. The membrane thinning effect was measured by x-ray diffraction. All data were in good agreement with the theory, indicating that the membrane thinning effect is a plausible mechanism for the peptide-induced pore formations.Biophysical Journal 07/2003; 84(6):3751-8. · 3.65 Impact Factor
Article: Oriented circular dichroism of a class A amphipathic helix in aligned phospholipid multilayers.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of lipid phase state on the orientation and conformation of a class A alpha-helical peptide on aligned lipid multilayers was examined using oriented circular dichroism spectroscopy. A comparison of oriented spectra in aligned peptide-lipid multilayers with CD spectra of unaligned peptide lipid vesicle complexes is consistent with a preferential alignment of helices parallel to the membrane surface at temperatures above and below the main acyl-chain melting transition temperature of the phospholipid. Changes are observed in the oriented CD spectra with lipid phase state which are attributed to a subtle conformational change of the peptide on the lipid surface. The results are compared with available experimental data on membrane-active lytic and antimicrobial helical peptides.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2000; 1467(1):124-30. · 4.66 Impact Factor