Multiallergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis and asthma
ABSTRACT The English and non-English language literature on allergen immunotherapy was reviewed for studies simultaneously using 2 or more distinct allergen extracts in either subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Thirteen studies were identified, 11 using subcutaneous injections, 1 using sublingual administration, and 1 using both. In studies with adequate information, administration of 2 extracts by means of either subcutaneous immunotherapy or sublingual immunotherapy was effective. In studies using multiple allergens, 3 studies showed clear efficacy, whereas in the other 2 studies, lack of efficacy might have been due to inadequate doses of extract or omission of clinically relevant allergens in the treatment regimen. It is concluded that simultaneous administration of more than 1 allergen extract is clinically effective. However, more studies are needed, particularly with more than 2 allergen extracts and with sublingual administration.
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ABSTRACT: The protospec unifies the concepts of requirements specification and prototype into a single software engineering process. An example of the use of the protospec concept for requirements specification within expert systems development domain is presented. The requirements specification resulting from this example is evaluated from both a user and a software engineering point of view. The result is compared to results for three other specification approachesSystem Sciences, 1989. Vol.II: Software Track, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Hawaii International Conference on; 02/1989
Conference Paper: Software development: a problem-theoretic analysis and model[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The software development process is analyzed from a problem-theoretic viewpoint, and a precise metamodel is proposed. The model provides a uniform conceptual structure for understanding the process by clarifying its semantics, and indicates some important requirements on formalisms purporting to describe the process. Requirements analysis, specification, and program transformations and decompositions are formulated in problem-theoretic terms. The metamodel formalizes a large portion of the software development process, leaving another portion as heuristics, which appears to be an essential ingredient in any widely applicable method. The analysis also suggests the nonexistence of a single canonical step for the entire process as well as obstacles to its complete formalization or automationSystem Sciences, 1989. Vol.II: Software Track, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Hawaii International Conference on; 02/1989
- Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 06/1995; 95(1):12P-12P. DOI:10.1016/0013-4694(95)94099-Z