Article

The effect of methylphenidate on postural stability under single and dual task conditions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - a double blind randomized control trial.

Schwartz Movement Analysis & Rehabilitation Laboratory, Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
Journal of the neurological sciences (Impact Factor: 2.32). 03/2009; 280(1-2):15-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2009.01.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate the effects of Methylphenidate (MPH) on postural stability in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children in single and dual task conditions.
A randomized controlled double-blind study analyzing postural stability in 24 ADHD children before and after MPH vs. placebo treatments, in three task conditions: (1) Single task, standing still; (2) dual task, standing still performing a memory-attention demanding task; (3) standing still listening to music.
MPH resulted in a significant improvement in postural stability during the dual task condition and while listening to music, with no equivalent improvement in placebo controls.
MPH improves postural stability in ADHD, especially when an additional task is performed. This is probably due to enhanced attention abilities, thus contributing to improved balance control during performance of tasks that require attention. MPH remains to be studied as a potential drug treatment to improve balance control and physical functioning in other clinical populations.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
64 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Given the known deficits in attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the evidence suggesting that postural control requires attention, this study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of postural control of children with and without ADHD in single-(ST) and dual-task (DT) conditions. Postural sway and stabilogram diffusion analysis (SDA) were performed on the Center of Pressure trajectories on 24 ADHD children and 17 age-gender-matched healthy controls. The subjects were instructed to stand as stable as possible on a force platform in two task conditions: (1) single task (ST) and (2) dual task (DT)-an auditory-memory attention-demanding cognitive task. During ST and DT conditions, the ADHD children showed significantly greater ML-sway, short- and long-term effective diffusion coefficients, and critical displacement of SDA compared with controls. The effects of DT were somewhat unexpected; the control group indicated a significant decrease in ML-sway, AP-sway, sway area, and critical displacement of SDA; the ADHD group showed a significant decrease in ML-sway range and critical displacement. It is concluded that a greater sway displacement before closed-loop mechanisms is called into play in ADHD children. The DT enhanced balance control by reinforcing balance automaticity and minimizing sway in both healthy and ADHD children.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 02/2012; 171(7):1087-94. · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: KILLEEN, P.R., V.A. Russell and J.A. Sergeant. A behavioral neuroenergetics theory of ADHD. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 37(4) XXX_XXX 2013- Energetic insufficiency in neurons due to inadequate lactate supply is implicated in several neuropathologies, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By formalizing the mechanism and implications of such constraints on function, the behavioral Neuroenergetics Theory (NeT) predicts the results of many neuropsychological tasks involving individuals with ADHD and kindred dysfunctions, and entails many novel predictions. The associated diffusion model predicts that response times will follow a mixture of Wald distributions from the attentive state, and ex-Wald distributions after attentional lapses. It is inferred from the model that ADHD participants can bring only 75-85% of the neurocognitive energy to bear on tasks, and allocate only about 85% of the cognitive resources of comparison groups. Parameters derived from the model in specific tasks predict performance in other tasks, and in clinical conditions often associated with ADHD. The primary action of therapeutic stimulants is the increase they cause in norepinephrine, which activates glial adrenoceptors, increasing the release of lactate from astrocytes to fuel depleted neurons. The theory is aligned with other approaches and integrated with more general theories of ADHD. Therapeutic implications are explored.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 02/2013; · 9.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In addition to the symptoms singled out by the diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a comprehensive definition should inform us of the events that trigger ADHD in both its acute and chronic manifestations; the neurobiology that underlies it; and the evolutionary forces that have kept it in the germ line of our species. These factors are organized in terms of Aristotle's four kinds of "causes," or explanations: formal, efficient, material, and final. This framework systematizes the nosology, biology, psychology, and evolutionary pressures that cause ADHD.
    Current topics in behavioral neurosciences. 09/2011; 9:391-425.