Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel benzofuran farnesyltransferase inhibitors.
ABSTRACT A series of benzofuran-based farnesyltransferase inhibitors have been designed and synthesized as antitumor agents. Among them, 11f showed the most potent enzyme inhibitory activity (IC(50)=1.1nM) and antitumor activity in human cancer xenografts in mice.
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ABSTRACT: Imidazole ring is an important five-membered aromatic heterocycle widely present in natural products and synthetic molecules. The unique structural feature of imidazole ring with desirable electron-rich characteristic is beneficial for imidazole derivatives to readily bind with a variety of enzymes and receptors in biological systems through diverse weak interactions, thereby exhibiting broad bioactivities. The related research and developments of imidazole-based medicinal chemistry have become a rapidly developing and increasingly active topic. Particularly, numerous imidazole-based compounds as clinical drugs have been extensively used in the clinic to treat various types of diseases with high therapeutic potency, which have shown the enormous development value. This work systematically gives a comprehensive review in current developments of imidazole-based compounds in the whole range of medicinal chemistry as anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, antineuropathic, antihypertensive, antihistaminic, antiparasitic, antiobesity, antiviral, and other medicinal agents, together with their potential applications in diagnostics and pathology. It is hoped that this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic imidazole-based medicinal drugs, as well as more effective diagnostic agents and pathologic probes.Medicinal Research Reviews 06/2013; · 9.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A major contributing factor to the high mortality rate associated with acute myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma is the development of resistance to chemotherapy. We have shown that the combination of tipifarnib, a nonpeptidomimetic farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), with bortezomib, a proteosome inhibitor, promotes synergistic death and overcomes de novo drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. Experiments were undertaken to identify the molecular mechanisms by which tipifarnib produces cell death in acute myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma cell lines (U937 and 8226, respectively). Tipifarnib, but not other FTIs tested [N-[4-[2(R)-amino-3-mercaptopropyl]amino-2-phenylbenzoyl]methionine methyl ester trifluoroacetate salt (FTI-277) and 2'-methyl-5-((((1-trityl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)amino)methyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid (FTI-2153), promotes elevations in intracellular free-calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) in both cell lines. These elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) were accompanied by highly dynamic plasmalemmal blebbing and frequently resulted in membrane lysis. The tipifarnib-induced elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) were not blocked by thapsigargin or ruthenium red, but were inhibited by application of Ca(2+)-free extracellular solution and by the Ca(2+) channel blockers Gd(3+) and La(3+). Conversely, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) potentiated the tipifarnib-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) overload. Preventing Ca(2+) influx diminished tipifarnib-evoked cell death, whereas 2-APB potentiated this effect, demonstrating a link between tipifarnib-induced Ca(2+) influx and apoptosis. These data suggest that tipifarnib exerts its effects by acting on a membrane channel with pharmacological properties consistent with store-operated channels containing the Orai3 subunit. It is noteworthy that Orai3 transcripts were found to be expressed at lower levels in tipifarnib-resistant 8226/R5 cells. Our results indicate tipifarnib causes cell death via a novel mechanism involving activation of a plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel and intracellular Ca(2+) overload.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2011; 337(3):636-43. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Farnesyltransferase (FTase) is a zinc-dependent enzyme that adds a farnesyl group to the Ras proteins. L778, 123 is a potent peptidomimetic imidazole-containing FTase inhibitor. Methods: L778123 was synthesized according to known methods and evaluated alone and in combination with doxorubicin against A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) and HT29 (human colonic adenocarcinoma) cell lines by MTT assay. Results: L778123 showed weak cytotoxic activity with IC50 of 100 and 125 for A549 and HT-29 cell lines, respectively. The combination of doxorubicin and L778123 can decrease IC50 of doxorubicin in both cell lines significantly. Conclusion: It can be concluded that L778, 123 can be a good agent for combination therapy.Advanced pharmaceutical bulletin. 01/2013; 3(1):73-77.