Cellular mesoblastic nephroma in an infant: Report of the cytologic diagnosis of a rare paediatric renal tumor

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
Diagnostic Cytopathology (Impact Factor: 1.12). 05/2009; 37(5):377-80. DOI: 10.1002/dc.21028
Source: PubMed


Congenital mesoblastic nephroma is a rare pediatric tumor with a favorable clinical outcome. Cytological features of this uncommon tumor and diagnostic difficulties with other commoner pediatric renal neoplasms have been inadequately discussed in the available literature. We describe the case of a 1-year-old girl who presented with a right renal mass. Fine-needle aspiration smears consisted of a few cellular clusters of spindle cells with mitotic activity and mild nuclear pleomorphism. No blastema was identified. A cytologic impression of mesoblastic nephroma was rendered, which was confirmed on histopathological examination of the right nephrectomy specimen as a cellular mesoblastic nephroma.
Cytologic diagnosis of mesoblastic nephroma has important prognostic and therapeutic implications. The cytopathologist should carefully evaluate smears from such patients and attempt to differentiate mesoblastic nephroma from Wilms' tumor and clear cell sarcoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009.

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    ABSTRACT: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used for preoperative diagnosis of paediatric renal tumours, especially in centres where preoperative chemotherapy is advocated in Wilms' tumour. This review focuses on salient cytological features in specific paediatric renal tumours, the approach to resolving a differential diagnosis and the role of ancillary methods in diagnosis of paediatric renal tumours. Crucial differential diagnoses include distinguishing: Wilms' tumour from benign tumours in the kidney like multicystic nephroma or congenital mesoblastic nephroma; aggressive non-Wilms' tumours of kidney like rhabdoid tumour of kidney; and Wilms' tumour from other paediatric round cell sarcomas like neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma etc. An approach based on classifying smears according to their cellular patterns as triphasic, round cell, spindle cell or epithelioid cell type assists in classifying paediatric renal tumours on cytology. Immunocytochemistry for WT1, cytokeratin, synaptophysin, leucocyte common antigen and MIC2 will aid in evaluating round cell tumours in the renal region, while WT1, bcl2, vimentin and desmin will be useful for spindle cell tumours in that region. Extra material can also be evaluated for demonstration of specific cytogenetic abnormalities in these tumours. A checklist of common tumours in a particular age group, relevant clinical information, awareness of distinctive and overlapping cytological features, and appropriate use of immunocytochemistry with cytogenetics go a long way in ensuring an accurate cytological diagnosis. Used judiciously, FNAC is as effective a tool as a core biopsy for preoperative diagnosis of paediatric renal tumours, and with experience a 92% accuracy rate can be achieved.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/PURPOSE The International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) protocol for Wilms tumor (WT) includes preoperative chemotherapy as the initial approach. However, an inadequate treatment may be performed in case of histological misdiagnosis. We evaluated the impact of fine-needle aspiration cytopathology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of unilateral WT in our group of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective descriptive study of patients with diagnosis of unilateral WT who underwent FNAC prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 1993 and 2009 was performed. We reviewed the cytological diagnosis obtained by ultrasound-guided FNAC and the histological correlation with the resected specimens. RESULTS FNAC was performed in 66 patients with unilateral WT. In 57 of the 58 patients with positive FNAC for WT, the final diagnosis was correct (PPV: 98.2%). In 8 cases with negative FNAC for WT, the final diagnosis was positive for WT in 3 patients (NPV: 62.5%). Sensitivity was 95% and specificity was 83.3%. No complications were found associated with the procedure, except for an episode of haematuria, which resolved spontaneously. CONCLUSIONS FNAC is a useful and feasible technique in children that may confirm the suspected diagnosis of unilateral WT, avoiding inadequate preoperative chemotherapy in case of a non-Wilms renal tumor.
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