Structural characterization of a soluble amyloid beta-peptide oligomer.
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is linked to the presence of amyloid beta-peptides that can form insoluble fibrils or soluble oligomeric assemblies. Soluble forms are present in the brains and tissues of Alzheimer's patients, and their presence correlates with disease progression. Long-lived soluble forms can be generated in vitro by using small amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbon chains of detergents or fatty acids in preparations of amyloid beta-peptides. Using NMR, we have characterized soluble oligomers of Abeta preglobulomer and globulomer that are stable and alter synaptic activity. The NMR data indicate that these soluble forms have a mixed parallel and antiparallel beta-sheet structure that is different from fibrils which contain only parallel beta-sheets. Using the structural data, we engineered a disulfide bond into the soluble Abeta globulomer to give a "new" soluble antigen that is stable, homogeneous, and binds with the same affinity to selective antibodies as the parent wt globulomer.
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ABSTRACT: Fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ) is the major constituent of senile plaques in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is a short peptide generated from amyloid precursor protein with two main isoforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, with the latter having two additional hydrophobic residues at the C-terminus. The two isoforms have distinct characteristics, in which Aβ42 plays a more pathogenic role. Some early-onset familial AD cases possess an elevated Aβ42/Aβ40 level, and biochemical studies show the two species interact with each other. Therefore, understanding structural conversion in the aggregation of mixed Aβ isoforms is essential for elucidating AD pathogenesis. Here, we systematically examined the differences among Aβ42, Aβ40, and various Aβ42/Aβ40 mixtures by monitoring the fibrillization kinetics, epitope changes, assembly, morphology, and induced cytotoxicity. We found the minor Aβ species in different mixing ratios modulated the major aggregation pathway. Size-exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and photo-crosslinking assay showed that soluble Aβ42 oligomers were stabilized after Aβ40 addition, and the equimolar Aβ42/Aβ40 mixture rapidly formed spherical oligomers. These oligomers were the most toxic among those examined as evidenced by neurite degeneration and neuronal toxicity. However, these oligomers were not responsible for intracellular calcium elevation. Overall, our results demonstrated that differently mixed Aβ species repartitioned oligomer intermediates on the major aggregation pathway. Furthermore, the equimolar mixture rapidly formed structurally stable and the most toxic oligomers. These results provided information on the potential pathological mechanisms underlying the elevated Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio in familial AD patients and in the local environment of sporadic AD brains.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Structured digital abstractAbeta40 and Abeta42 bind by fluorescence technology (View interaction); by filter binding (View interaction); by electron microscopy (View interaction); by molecular sieving (View interaction) and by cross-linking study (View interaction)Abeta42 and Abeta42 bind by fluorescence technology (View interaction); by filter binding (View interaction); by electron microscopy (View interaction); by molecular sieving (View interaction) and by cross-linking study (View interaction)Abeta40 and Abeta40 bind by fluorescence technology (View interaction); by filter binding (View interaction); by electron microscopy (View interaction); by molecular sieving (View interaction) and by cross-linking study (View interaction)FEBS Journal 04/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Small oligomers of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, rather than the monomers or the fibrils, are suspected to initiate Alzheimer′s disease (AD). However, their low concentration and transient nature under physiological conditions have made structural investigations difficult. A method for addressing such problems has been developed by combining rapid fluorescence techniques with slower two-dimensional solid-state NMR methods. The smallest Aβ40 oligomers that demonstrate a potential sign of toxicity, namely, an enhanced affinity for cell membranes, were thus probed. The two hydrophobic regions (residues 10–21 and 30–40) have already attained the conformation that is observed in the fibrils. However, the turn region (residues 22–29) and the N-terminal tail (residues 1–9) are strikingly different. Notably, ten of eleven known Aβ mutants that are linked to familial AD map to these two regions. Our results provide potential structural cues for AD therapeutics and also suggest a general method for determining transient protein structures.Angewandte Chemie International Edition 04/2014; · 11.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular translational self-diffusion, a measure of diffusive motion, provides information on the effective molecular hydrodynamic radius, as well as information on the properties of media or solution through which the molecule diffuses. Protein translational diffusion measured by pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) has seen increased application in structure and interaction studies, as structural changes or protein-protein interactions are often accompanied by alteration of their effective hydrodynamic radii. Unlike the analysis of complex mixtures by PFG-NMR, for monitoring changes of protein translational diffusion under various conditions, such as different stages of folding/unfolding, a partial region of the spectrum or even a single resonance is sufficient. We report translational diffusion coefficients measured by PFG-NMR with a modified stimulated echo (STE) sequence where band-selective pulses are employed for all three (1)H RF pulses. Compared with conventional non-selective sequence, e.g. the BPP-LED sequence, the advantage of this modified band-selective excitation short transient (BEST) version of STE (BEST-STE) sequence is multi-fold, namely: (1) potential sensitivity gain as in generalized BEST-based sequences, (2) water suppression is no longer required as the magnetization of solvent water is not perturbed during the measurement, and (3) dynamic range problems due to the presence of intense resonances from molecules other than the protein or peptide of interest, such as non-deuterated detergent micelles, are avoided.Biophysics of Structure and Mechanism 05/2014; · 2.44 Impact Factor