Drinking patterns, dependency and life-time drinking history in alcohol-related liver disease.
ABSTRACT To examine the hypothesis that increases in UK liver deaths are a result of episodic or binge drinking as opposed to regular harmful drinking.
A prospective survey of consecutive in-patients and out-patients.
The liver unit of a teaching hospital in the South of England.
A total of 234 consecutive in-patients and out-patients between October 2007 and March 2008.
Face-to-face interviews, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, 7-day drinking diary, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, Lifetime Drinking History and liver assessment.
Of the 234 subjects, 106 had alcohol as a major contributing factor (alcoholic liver disease: ALD), 80 of whom had evidence of cirrhosis or progressive fibrosis. Of these subjects, 57 (71%) drank on a daily basis; only 10 subjects (13%) drank on fewer than 4 days of the week--of these, five had stopped drinking recently and four had cut down. In ALD patients two life-time drinking patterns accounted for 82% of subjects, increasing from youth (51%), and a variable drinking pattern (31%). ALD patients had significantly more drinking days and units/drinking day than non-ALD patients from the age of 20 years onwards.
Increases in UK liver deaths are a result of daily or near-daily heavy drinking, not episodic or binge drinking, and this regular drinking pattern is often discernable at an early age.
- Hepatology 07/1989; 9(6):904-5. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was: (1) to identify different trajectories of frequent binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood; (2) to validate the trajectories by relating them to behaviors and attitudes concerning alcohol and other drug use; and (3) to distinguish among the trajectories according to demographic characteristics and lifestyle experiences typical of the transition to young adulthood. Four waves of national panel data were obtained from the Monitoring the Future project; 9,945 weighted cases from the 1976-85 high school senior year cohorts were surveyed at biennial intervals between ages 18 and 24. Frequent binge drinking was defined as having five or more drinks in a row at least twice in the past two weeks. Six distinct frequent binge drinking trajectory groups were specified a priori and confirmed with cluster analysis: Never, Rare, Chronic, Decreased, Increased and "Fling." Repeated measures ANOVAS revealed that the trajectories corresponded to patterns of change and stability in problems with alcohol, attitudes about heavy drinking, peer heavy drinking and illicit drug use. Results from logistic regression analyses predicting diverging and converging trajectories provided some support for the general hypothesis that trajectories of Chronic and Increased frequent binge drinking over time are associated with difficulties in negotiating the transition to young adulthood. The findings provide strong evidence for wide developmental variation in drinking patterns in the population, variation that is obscured by more aggregate-level considerations. The developmental variation in frequent binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood reflects systematic variation in success and difficulties with negotiating the transition.Journal of studies on alcohol 06/1996; 57(3):289-304.
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ABSTRACT: Many young adults engage in heavy or problem drinking, but it is unclear who will continue problem drinking into adulthood. This study followed a general population sample in order to study patterns of problem drinking over time, to identify differences among drinking groups, to test a model differentiating youth-limited from developmentally-persistent problem drinkers, and to examine adult outcomes. Data were from the Health and Human Development Project; subjects (N = 1,073) were in three age cohorts (age 18-25; age 21-28; age 24-31). Based on use and consequences data from two assessment intervals, cluster analyses were performed. Cluster analyses yielded four drinking groups: youth-limited problem drinkers, stable moderate drinkers, stable low drinkers and developmentally-persistent problem drinkers. Rates of youth-limited problem drinking peaked in the middle cohort and rates of developmentally-persistent problem drinking decreased in the oldest cohort. Discriminant analysis revealed that developmentally-persistent problem drinkers in each age cohort are more likely to be male, to show high disinhibition, and to experience a high level of problem behaviors. Youth-limited problem drinkers were similar to developmentally-persistent problem drinkers on many young adult characteristics and adult outcomes. Developmentally-persistent problem drinkers in each age cohort continued to show higher levels of problem behaviors in adulthood than youth-limited problem drinkers. Most young adults show continuity of drinking patterns. Although developmentally-persistent problem drinkers did not differ from youth-limited problem drinkers in adopting adult roles, their continued experience of many problem behaviors suggests that they fail to adopt the role of greater conventionality in adulthood.Journal of studies on alcohol 10/1999; 60(5):605-14.