The Immunomodulatory Effect of Sambucol on Leishmanial and Malarial Infections
ABSTRACT A nontoxic dose of Sambucol, an immunomodulator commercially sold as an immune stimulator, was examined in murine models of leishmaniasis and malaria. Sambucol causes a shift in the immune response, as demonstrated in human monocyte cultures, to Th1 (inflammation-associated) responses. Treatment of leishmania-infected mice with Sambucol delayed the development of the disease. As there was no direct IN VITRO anti-leishmanial effect, the observed partial protection IN VIVO is most likely related to immune modulation. Although increased Th1 responses are associated with protection from leishmaniasis, they are considered to be the main immunopathological processes leading to cerebral malaria. Administration of Sambucol to mice prior to and following infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA increased the incidence of cerebral malaria, while administration of Sambucol after infection had no effect on the disease. The results demonstrate how an inflammatory-like response may alleviate or exacerbate clinical symptoms of disease and hint at the importance of administration timing. The overall effect of immunomodulator administration depends on the ongoing immune response and the Th1/Th2 balance determined by both host and parasite defense mechanisms.
SourceAvailable from: Carlos Villalobos[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Delphinidin is an anthocyanidin that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; however, some reports suggest that delphinidin has pro-inflammatory properties. For this reason, we assessed the effect of delphinidin on cytokine production in T cells. We demonstrated that delphinidin increased the cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentration by releasing Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and increasing Ca(2+) entry. The putative Ca(2+) release activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel inhibitors BTP2 and gadolinium reduced the calcium entry stimulated by the anthocyanidin. Delphinidin induced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) translocation and NFAT-Luc activity in Jurkat cells and was dependent on the CRAC channel and calcineurin pathway. Delphinidin increased the mRNA expression and production of IL-2 in Jurkat cells and was inhibited by BTP2 and cyclosporine A. Using peripheral blood lymphocytes, we demonstrated that delphinidin increased the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ and was inhibited by BTP2. Taken together, our results suggest that delphinidin exerts immunostimulatory effects on T cells by increasing cytokine production through CRAC channel and NFAT activation.Cell biochemistry and biophysics 08/2013; DOI:10.1007/s12013-013-9728-z · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The berries of Sambucus nigra have traditionally been used and are still used to treat respiratory illnesses such as cold and flu in Europe, Asia and America. The aim of this paper was to elucidate the structures and the immunomodulating properties of the pectic polymers from elderberries. All the purified fractions obtained from 50% ethanol, 50°C water and 100°C water extracts showed potent dose-dependent complement fixating activity and macrophage stimulating activity. The isolated fractions consisted of long homogalacturonan regions, in addition to arabinogalactan-I and arabinogalactan-II probably linked to a rhamnogalacturonan backbone. Reduced bioactivity was observed after reduction of Araf residues and 1→3,6 Gal by weak acid hydrolysis. The rhamnogalacturonan region in SnBe50-I-S3-I and SnBe50-I-S3-II showed higher activity compared to the native polymer, SnBe50-S3, after enzymatic treatment with endo-α-d-(1→4)-polygalacturonase. These results indicated that elderberries contained immunomodulating polysaccharides, where the ramified regions express the activities observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.07/2015; 125:314-22. DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.02.057
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ABSTRACT: This paper examines cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underpin the purported effects of five herbal supplements in the context of athlete immune function. Ginseng and echinacea are used frequently by athletes, whereas astragalus and elderberry are used infrequently and pequi is just emerging as a possible supplement. In vivo studies of these products on athlete immune function have yielded heterogeneous results, likely due to experimental design differences. Ginseng, echinacea, elderberry, and pequi are considered asterids sensu lato. Ginseng appears to exert strongest effects on components of adaptive immunity, in particular maintaining Th1/Th2 balance of CD4+T cells and their downstream effects, via its ginsenosides, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. Echinacea alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysacchardies may target both innate and adaptive immunity, though perhaps the former more consistently. Elderberry harbors anthocyanins and lectins which may modulate innate immunity. Data on pequi is limited but suggests that carotenoids, phenols, and fatty acids may alter circulating leukocyte populations. More phylogenetically distant, astragalus is a rosid sensu lato and may influence the innate immune system through flavonoids, polysaccharides, and saponins. Supplements generally demonstrate no effects on physiologic parameters such as lactate, oxygen dynamics, or athletic performance. Bioavailability studies indicate that purported bioactive molecules of these supplements may reach circulation in low but therapeutically-relevant quantities. Difficulties in crosscomparisons due to study design differences, coupled with an overall dearth of research on the topic, currently hamper any formal conclusions regarding the efficacy of these supplements as immunoregulators for athletes.02/2013; 8(1):78-100. DOI:10.1007/s11515-012-1197-z