Planarians have a nearly unlimited capability of renewing lost
body structures (reviewed by Saló, 2006). Candidates for
providing positional information during planarian regeneration
are gradient-forming growth factors, such as Wnts. Wnts are
secreted glycoproteins that behave as major organizers during
embryonic development in various metazoan organisms
(reviewed by Logan and Nusse, 2004). Canonical Wnt signaling
is transduced through β-catenin, and mediates developmental
processes, including axis specification (reviewed by Grigoryan et
al., 2008). Some Wnts, such as mammalian Wnt5 (Slusarski et al.,
1997), can signal through β-catenin-independent mechanisms,
and control processes, such as cell polarity and directional
movement (Witze et al., 2008).
Recently, β-catenin has been demonstrated to be essential in the
establishment of anteroposterior (AP) identity during regeneration
of the planarian species Schmidtea mediterranea (Gurley et al.,
2008; Iglesias et al., 2008; Petersen and Reddien, 2008). Smed-β-
catenin1silencing leads to a loss of posterior identity and complete
anteriorization (‘radial-like hypercephalyzed’ planarians) (Iglesias
et al., 2008). However, although these studies suggest that Wnt
proteins might be essential organizers of regeneration in planarians,
direct evidence is missing.
Wnt secretion requires the transmembrane protein Evenness
interrupted [Evi; also known as Wntless (Wls) and Sprinter]
(Bänziger et al., 2006; Bartscherer et al., 2006; Goodman et al.,
2006). In Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, Wnts are not
secreted in the absence of Evi, leading to a loss of Wnt signaling
in the surrounding tissue. Owing to the lack of non-canonical
phenotypes in evi mutant flies (Bartscherer et al., 2006), it is
currently not known whether Evi also controls β-catenin-
independent Wnt signaling.
Here, we report the effect of RNAi-mediated silencing of Smed-
evi and all putative S. mediterranea Wnt genes during planarian
regeneration. We show that, like Smed-β-catenin1, Smed-evi,as well
as Smed-wnt11-2 and Smed-wntP-1, are required for posterior
identity in regenerating animals. In addition, we demonstrate that
Smed-evi RNAi causes the same β-catenin-independent defects as
does Smed-wnt5 loss-of-function, suggesting that Smed-Wnt5 is a
non-canonical Wnt that requires Smed-Evi for its secretion, and
which acts to control neuronal growth during regeneration of the
planarian nervous system.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The planarians used belong to an asexual race of S. mediterranea, and were
maintained as described elsewhere (Molina et al., 2007).
Identification and cloning of S. mediterranea genes
Smed-evi and the nine Smed-Wnt genes were identified from the S.
mediterranea genomic database (http://genome.wustl.edu/) through a
BLAST search (http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The full-length transcripts of the
incomplete genes were amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends
(RACE) using the Invitrogen GeneRacer Kit (Invitrogen).
Smed-evi, FJ463748; Smed-wnt5, FJ463749; Smed-wntA, FJ463750; Smed-
wnt11-2, FJ463751; Smed-wntP-4, FJ463752.
dsRNA microinjection was performed as described elsewhere (Sánchez-
Alvarado and Newmark, 1999). dsRNAs were synthesized as described
(Boutros et al., 2004). Primer details are available upon request. Control
animals were injected with water. Injected planarians were amputated pre-
and post-pharyngeally, and the head-, trunk-, and tail-pieces were allowed
to regenerate for the times indicated.
Whole-mount in situ hybridization
Whole-mount in situ hybridization was carried out as described previously
(Nogi and Levin, 2005; Umesono et al., 1999). Digoxigenin-labelled
riboprobes were synthesized using an in vitro transcription kit (Roche)
(Iglesias et al., 2008). Primer details are available upon request.
Smed-Evi/Wntless is required for β-catenin-dependent and
-independent processes during planarian regeneration
Teresa Adell1, Emili Salò1, Michael Boutros2and Kerstin Bartscherer2,*
Planarians can regenerate a whole animal from only a small piece of their body, and have become an important model for stem cell
biology. To identify regenerative processes dependent on Wnt growth factors in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea (Smed), we
analyzed RNAi phenotypes of Evi, a transmembrane protein specifically required for the secretion of Wnt ligands. We show that,
during regeneration, Smed-evi loss-of-function prevents posterior identity, leading to two-headed planarians that resemble Smed-
β-catenin1 RNAi animals. In addition, we observe regeneration defects of the nervous system that are not found after Smed-
β-catenin1 RNAi. By systematic knockdown of all putative Smed Wnts in regenerating planarians, we identify Smed-WntP-1 and
Smed-Wnt11-2 as the putative posterior organizers, and demonstrate that Smed-Wnt5 is a regulator of neuronal organization and
growth. Thus, our study provides evidence that planarian Wnts are major regulators of regeneration, and that they signal through
β-catenin-dependent and -independent pathways.
KEY WORDS: Anteroposterior axis, Brain patterning, Evi/Wls, Planarians, Regeneration, Wnt signaling
Development 136, 905-910 (2009) doi:10.1242/dev.033761
1Department of Genetics and Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona
(IBUB), 08028 Barcelona, Spain. 2German Cancer Research Center, Division of
Signaling and Functional Genomics, and University of Heidelberg/Faculty of
Medicine Mannheim, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, 69120 Heidelberg,
*Author for correspondence (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Accepted 12 January 2009
Immunostaining was carried out as described previously (Cebrià and
Newmark, 2005). Antibodies used were: anti-Arrestin (Sakai et al., 2000) at
a 1:15,000 dilution, and anti-Synapsin (anti-SYNORF1, Developmental
Studies Hybridoma Bank) at 1:25.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
An Evi homolog is expressed in S. mediterranea
We found a single evi gene in the genome of S. mediterranea (Fig.
1A; see also Fig. S1 in the supplementary material). Smed-evi
mRNA mainly localized to the nervous system, the brain/cephalic
ganglia (CG) and the ventral nerve cords (VNCs), as well as to the
pharynx, and to the mouth. In addition, it was expressed in discrete
cells of the posterior parenchyma (Fig. 1B).
To analyze the expression of Smed-evi in regenerating animals,
we dissected heads and tails from the trunk parts of the animals and
followed their regeneration. Smed-evi was expressed in the
regenerating nervous system and upregulated in the pharynx
primordia, as well as in the tips of posterior wounds (blastemas; Fig.
1C), suggesting that Smed-evi might be especially important for
posterior regeneration. As Evi is required for the secretion of Wnts,
the Smed-evi expression pattern might indicate sites of Wnt
production and release in planarians.
Smed-evi is required for posterior identity
To reveal Wnt-dependent processes in planarian regeneration, we
depleted Smed-evi by RNAi, and dissected heads and tails from the
trunk parts of the animals. Within 25 days of regeneration, all head
fragments developed an ectopic posterior head with eyes and a brain
(Fig. 2A,B). In addition, the expression of the central-posterior Hox
gene Smed-hoxD was lost (Fig. 2C). These results indicate that, in
the absence of Smed-evi, posterior fate is suppressed to the gain of
We obtained similar results for eviRNAi trunk fragments, as most
of them developed an ectopic posterior head (Fig. 2D,E). In all
animals, the anterior head showed several ectopic eyes. Both,
anterior and posterior eyes differentiated laterally along the
anteroposterior axis and were connected by their visual axons. In
most cases, they did not cross the commissure and the optic quiasm
was not formed (Fig. 2D). In ~50% of the Smed-evi RNAi trunks,
the posterior head dissociated spontaneously during regeneration, a
process we refer to as ‘scission’. Tail pieces regenerated a head with
ectopic eyes (for Smed-evi RNAi phenotypes, see Fig. S2 in the
The role of planarian Evi in AP polarity, but not in dorsoventral
(DV) polarity (see Fig. S3 in the supplementary material), is consistent
with the recently described Smed-β-catenin1RNAi phenotype.Smed-
β-catenin1 RNAi causes a loss of AP polarity and complete
anteriorization of regenerating planarians (Gurley et al., 2008; Iglesias
et al., 2008; Petersen and Reddien, 2008) (Fig. 2F). However, we
never observed full anteriorization after Smed-evi knockdown, which
might be due to inefficient knockdown ofSmed-evi, or to a stronger
blockage of signaling after the loss of Smed-β-catenin1.
Together our results suggest that Smed-Evi is required for the
release of Wnts that act through a β-catenin-dependent pathway to
organize AP axis polarity during planarian regeneration.
Smed-evi is required for neuronal growth
regulation during regeneration
To analyze the brains of Smed-evi RNAi animals in more detail, we
tested head fragments for Synapsin expression (Fig. 2G-J). In wild-
type animals the CG were located dorsally above the VNCs and
extended as a pair into the regenerating tail (Fig. 2G; see Movie 1 in
the supplementary material). However, in the posterior head of Smed-
eviRNAi animals, both CG grew laterally along the VNCs. Confocal
sections revealed that the posterior part of the CG projected into the
ventral region (Fig. 2G?; see Movie 2 in the supplementary material).
We refer to this phenotype as ‘deflected-brain phenotype’. Even
though Smed-β-catenin1knockdown also resulted in the formation of
a posterior brain, the ectopic CG never appeared deflected from the
VNCs (Fig. 2H).
In bipolar regenerating trunk fragments, Synapsin expression
showed the same deflected-brain phenotype. In addition,
longitudinal neuronal tissue projected from posterior CG into the
ventral half of the animal (Fig. 2I?; see Movie 4 in the
supplementary material; a control trunk fragment is shown in
Movie 3). We can only speculate whether these projections were
new VNCs growing from posterior to anterior. As they grew
laterally to the old VNCs, it is possible that old ones might repel
new neuronal tissue, causing the lateral protrusions we observed in
regenerating trunks (Fig. 2D,I?). Consistent with the absence of any
optical chiasm, Synapsin staining revealed that the commissure was
lost in anterior and posterior brains. We also observed a
disconnection between the old and the new VNCs. Smed-β-
catenin1 RNAi animals showed neither a deflection nor any
disconnections of the nervous tissue (Fig. 2J). Thus, we propose
Development 136 (6)
Fig. 1. An Evi homolog is expressed in planarians. (A)Human, fly
and planarian Evi proteins. Protein sizes and sequence identities are
indicated. Putative transmembrane domains are blue. (B,C)Whole-
mount in situ expression analysis of evi mRNA in Schmidtea
mediterranea. In intact animals, Smed-evi mRNA is expressed in the
cephalic ganglia (CG), the ventral nerve cords (VNCs), the mouth, the
pharynx, and cells of the posterior parenchyma (B). During regeneration
(C), Smed-evi is expressed in the regenerating nervous system, and is
upregulated in the pharynx and in posterior blastemas (arrows). Shown
are head, trunk and tail fragments six days after dissection. Anterior is
left, posterior is right. Scale bar: 500µm.
that Smed-Evi is required for the release of a Wnt protein that does
not signal through β-catenin, and which restricts and defines the
position of neuronal tissue during planarian regeneration.
Wnt genes in the S. mediterranea genome
To identify all putative Wnt genes in S. mediterranea, we
searched the genome for sequences homologous to Wnts from
several species. We identified nine Wnt genes: Smed-wntP-1,
Smed-wntP-2, Smed-wntP-3, Smed-wnt11-1 and Smed-wnt2-1,
have been recently reported (Petersen and Reddien, 2008); Smed-
wntA and Smed-wnt5 encode proteins homologous to Wnts from
other planarian species (Kobayashi et al., 2007; Marsal et al.,
2003); and Smed-wnt11-2 and Smed-wntP-4 have not been
described before. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that Smed-
Wnt5, Smed-Wnt11-1/2 and Smed-Wnt2-1 can be assigned to
established Wnt subfamilies. However, the other planarian Wnts
appear as internal duplications in this phylum, and cannot be
classified with high certainty (see Fig. S4 in the supplementary
Posterior identity requires Smed-wntP-1 and
Next, we set out to identify the Wnts responsible for the
specification of posterior structures during regeneration. In situ
hybridization experiments showed that Smed-wnt11-2, as well as
Smed-wntP-1 (Petersen and Reddien, 2008), was expressed in
discrete cells along the most posterior midline of the S. mediterranea
body (Fig. 3A,B). In regenerating animals, Smed-wnt11-2and Smed-
wntP-1 mRNA levels were upregulated in discrete cells of the
posterior blastemas, indicating an important role in the control of
posterior identity (Fig. 3C,D).
We tested whether posterior regeneration was affected by
Smed-wnt11-2 and Smed-wntP-1 RNAi. Silencing of either
mRNA led to a ‘tailless’ morphology, which was characterized by
a shorter and more rounded posterior end, in which VNCs
terminated shortly behind the pharynx (Fig. 3F,G). Furthermore,
~10% of regenerating trunks, and more than half of all
regenerating head fragments of Smed-wntP-1 RNAi animals
resulted in two-headed planarians (Fig. 3G), a phenotype that was
Smed-Evi in planarian regeneration
Fig. 2. Smed-evi RNAi phenotypes. (A-E)Smed-
evi RNAi results in anteriorized planarians. Images of
live animals (A,D,D?), and animals stained for visual
Arrestin (A?,D?). Note the formation of a posterior
head, indicated by white arrows pointing towards
ectopic eyes. Orange arrows indicate ectopic lateral
protrusions (see also I?). Loss of the optical chiasm is
indicated by the white arrowhead in D?. (B,E)Whole-
mount in situ hybridization against Smed-glutamate
receptor (gluR) mRNA shows the formation of an
ectopic brain instead of a tail in Smed-evi RNAi
animals (arrow). (C)Whole-mount in situ
hybridization against Smed-hoxD mRNA indicates
the loss of posterior and medial identities after
Smed-evi RNAi. (F)RNAi against Smed-β-catenin1
leads to fully anteriorized planarians.
(G,G? ?,I,I? ?)Smed-evi RNAi results in growth and
patterning defects of the regenerating nervous
system. The nervous system was labeled with an
anti-Synapsin antibody (green). The position of
Arrestin-positive eyes is indicated in red
(pseudocolor). In control head fragments (G) CG
(red arrows) are located dorsally above the VNCs
(blue arrows). After Smed-evi RNAi (G?), the
posterior CG are detected in dorsal and ventral
sections, laterally to the VNCs (deflected-brain
phenotype). (I,I?) Regenerating trunk fragments.
After Smed-evi RNAi, both anterior and posterior
nervous tissue show the deflected-brain phenotype.
CG ,red arrows; VNCs, blue arrows, putative VNCs
projected from posterior CG, purple arrows;
disconnections between the old and the new
nervous tissue, white arrows. (H,J)Synapsin
expression in regenerating head and trunk fragments
after Smed-β-catenin1 RNAi. Regenerating head and
trunk animals correspond to 20 and 25-30 days of
regeneration. Images are z-projections of several
confocal sections. Dorsal and ventral images are
single sections. Anterior is left, posterior is right.
not enhanced by the simultaneous knockdown of wnt11-2 (not
shown). As Smed-β-catenin1 RNAi also causes anteriorization of
planarians (Fig. 2), Smed-Wnt11-2 and Smed-WntP-1 are likely
to signal through β-catenin to permit posterior fate during
Smed-Wnt5 controls neuronal growth and
patterning during regeneration
To identify Wnt proteins responsible for the deflected-brain
phenotype of Smed-eviRNAi animals, we silenced all remaining S.
mediterranea Wnt transcripts. Smed-wnt2-1, Smed-wntP-3 and
Smed-wntP-4 had no obvious phenotype, possibly owing to
inefficient knockdown.Consistent with the phenotype after DjwntA
silencing in the planarian species Dugesia japonica (Kobayashi et
al., 2007), we detected an abnormal elongation of the new brain and
visual axons in Smed-wntA RNAi animals (see Fig. S5 in the
In Smed-wnt5 RNAi animals, we discovered a deflection and
ventral expansion of the regenerating CG (Fig. 4D; see also Movie
5 in the supplementary material). In the regenerating tail, new
Synapsin-positive tissue appeared, which was thicker than, and
appeared disconnected from, the old nervous tissue (Fig. 4D).
Expression analysis of Smed-glutamate receptor (gluR) mRNA
showed that the new posterior neuronal tissue was not of brain
identity (Fig. 4E), suggesting that it was new VNCs that grew
deflected from the old ones. These phenotypes were similar to those
observed after Smed-evi silencing (Fig. 2I; see also Movie 5 in the
Consistent with this, we found that Smed-wnt5 mRNA localized
mainly to distinct cells along the CG and VNCs, and was
upregulated in the regenerating nervous system and the blastemas
(Fig. 4B). Together, our data suggest that Smed-Evi restricts and
coordinates the growth of regenerating neuronal tissue by regulating
the secretion of Smed-Wnt5.
Our study reveals several regenerative processes that are regulated
by Wnts in planarians (for a summary, see Table S1 in the
supplementary material). Using Smed-evi RNAi to block Wnt
secretion, we identify AP axis polarity and neuronal growth as being
Wnt-regulated processes. Specifically, we identify Smed-wntP-1and
Smed-wnt11-2 as being the secreted molecules responsible for AP
axis polarity. Consistent with the role of Wnts as morphogens
(reviewed by Bartscherer and Boutros, 2008), Smed-WntP-1 and
Smed-Wnt11-2 might activate posterior fate, from their site of
production in the tail (Fig. 3), along the AP body axis. As posterior
identity also depends on Smed-β-catenin1, we propose that Smed-
WntP-1 and Smed-Wnt11-2 signal through β-catenin to permit
posterior fate during regeneration.
Furthermore, we show that knockdown of Smed-wnt5 results in
a deflected-brain phenotype. Our data are consistent with the
reported role of Wnt5 in axonal growth in several organisms
(Yoshikawa et al., 2003; Fradkin et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2007).
Smed-Wnt5 belongs to the Wnt5 family (see Fig. S4 in the
supplementary material), which has been linked to non-canonical
Wnt signal transduction (Wong et al., 1994; Olson and Papkoff,
1994; Shimizu et al., 1997) and seems to regulate cell motility
rather than specification (Moon et al., 1993; Wallingford et al.,
2001; Witze et al., 2008). As we did not observe any deflected-
brain phenotype after Smed-β-catenin1 RNAi, we suggest that
Smed-Wnt5 signals through a mechanism that is β-catenin
In planarians, Evi function is therefore required for the secretion
of Wnts that signal through β-catenin-dependent and -independent
pathways (Fig. 4F). This suggests that Evi is an ancient factor that
had been an important facilitator of Wnt secretion before Wnts
functionally diverged. Even though the same Wnts might be able to
signal through both canonical and non-canonical pathways,
Development 136 (6)
Fig. 3. Smed-wnt11-2 and Smed-wntP-1 are required for
posterior identity during planarian regeneration. (A-D)Whole-
mount in situ hybridization analysis of Smed-wnt11-2 and Smed-wntP-
1 mRNAs (arrows) in intact (A,B) and regenerating animals at day 4 of
regeneration (C,D). (F,G)RNAi against Smed-wnt11-2 and Smed-wntP-
1 leads to a ‘tailless’ phenotype (red arrows, compare with control in E).
In some animals (see quantification in G?), Smed-wntP-1 RNAi causes
the generation of ectopic posterior heads (white arrows in G). Shown
are images of live regenerating trunk fragments (E-G), and confocal z-
projections of trunk fragments stained with anti-Synapsin (E?-G?), at
day 20 of regeneration.
depending on the receptor context (reviewed by van Amerongen et
al., 2008), we demonstrate that Wnts can have distinct canonical or
non-canonical functions in planarians. The nature and constellation
of planarian Wnt receptors remains the subject of future studies, and
might help us to understand how cells translate Wnt signals into
diverse cellular responses, both in planarians and in other organisms.
We thank F. Cebrià for helpful advice; M. Riutort for help with phylogenetic
analysis of Wnt proteins; M. Carl and A. Ragab for comments on the
manuscript; B. Lang and T. Horn for bioinformatics support; F. Cebrià and P.
Newmark for providing Smed-gluR, septin and eye53 clones; H. Orii and K.
Watanabe for providing anti-Arrestin. K.B. thanks M. Osborn and M. Schäfer
for advice. This work was supported by a Marie Curie Excellence grant from
the European Commission, the German Research Foundation and by the
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain.
Supplementary material for this article is available at
van Amerongen, R., Mikels, A. and Nusse, R. (2008). Alternative wnt
signaling is initiated by distinct receptors. Sci. Signal. 1, re9.
Bänziger, C., Soldini, D., Schütt, C., Zipperlen, P., Hausmann, G. and Basler,
K. (2006). Wntless, a conserved membrane protein dedicated to the secretion
of Wnt proteins from signaling cells. Cell 125, 509-522.
Bartscherer, K. and Boutros, M. (2008). Regulation of Wnt protein secretion
and its role in gradient formation. EMBO Rep. 9, 977-982.
Bartscherer, K., Pelte, N., Ingelfinger, D. and Boutros, M. (2006). Secretion
of Wnt ligands requires Evi, a conserved transmembrane protein. Cell 125,
Boutros, M., Kiger, A. A., Armknecht, S., Kerr, K., Hild, M., Koch, B., Haas,
S. A., Paro, R. and Perrimon, N. (2004). Heidelberg Fly Array Consortium.
Genome-wide RNAi analysis of growth and viability in Drosophila cells. Science
Cebrià, F. and Newmark, P. A. (2005). Planarian homologs of netrin and netrin
receptor are required for proper regeneration of the central nervous system and
the maintenance of nervous system architecture. Development 132, 3691-3703.
Fradkin, L. G., van Schie, M., Wouda, R. R., de Jong, A., Kamphorst, J. T.,
Radjkoemar-Bansraj, M. and Noordermeer, J. N. (2004). The Drosophila
Wnt5 protein mediates selective axon fasciculation in the embryonic central
nervous system. Dev. Biol. 272, 362-375.
Goodman, R. M., Thombre, S., Firtina, Z., Gray, D., Betts, D., Roebuck, J.,
Spana, E. P. and Selva, E. M. (2006). Sprinter: a novel transmembrane protein
required for Wg secretion and signaling. Development 133, 4901-4911.
Grigoryan, T., Wend, P., Klaus, A. and Birchmeier, W. (2008). Deciphering the
function of canonical Wnt signals in development and disease: conditional
loss- and gain-of-function mutations of β-catenin in mice. Genes Dev. 22,
Gurley, K. A., Rink, J. C. and Sánchez Alvarado, A. (2008). β-catenin defines
head versus tail identity during planarian regeneration and homeostasis.
Science 319, 323-327.
Iglesias, M., Gomez-Skarmeta, J. L., Saló, E. and Adell, T. (2008). Silencing
of Smed-βcatenin1 generates radial-like hypercephalized planarians.
Development 135, 1215-1221.
Kobayashi, C., Saito, Y., Ogawa, K. and Agata, K. (2007). Wnt signaling is
required for antero-posterior patterning of the planarian brain. Dev. Biol. 306,
Logan, C. Y. and Nusse, R. (2004). The Wnt signaling pathway in development
and disease. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 20, 781-810.
Marsal, M., Pineda, D. and Saló, E. (2003). Gtwnt-5 a member of the wnt
family expressed in a subpopulation of the nervous system of the planarian
Girardia tigrina. Gene Expr. Patterns 3, 489-495.
Molina, M. D., Saló, E. and Cebrià, F. (2007). The BMP pathway is essential for
re-specification and maintenance of the dorsoventral axis in regenerating and
intact planarians. Dev. Biol. 311, 79-94.
Moon, R. T., Campbell, R. M., Christian, J. L., McGrew, L. L., Shih, J. and
Fraser, S. (1993). Xwnt-5A: a maternal Wnt that affects morphogenetic
movements after overexpression in embryos of Xenopus laevis. Development
Nogi, N. and Levin, M. (2005). Characterization of innexin gene expression and
functional roles of gap-junctional communication in planarian regeneration.
Dev. Biol. 287, 314-335.
Smed-Evi in planarian regeneration
Fig. 4. Smed-wnt5 regulates growth and
patterning of the planarian regenerating
nervous system. (A,B)In situ hybridization
analysis of Smed-wnt5 mRNA in intact (A)
and regenerating (B) animals. Smed-wnt5 is
expressed in discrete cells along the VNCs and
the CG (red arrows), as well as in cells in the
periphery and along the DV boundary (blue
arrows). It is upregulated in the regenerating
CG of the anterior blastema (white arrows in
B). (C,D)Control and Smed-wnt5 RNAi trunk
fragments at day 20 of regeneration, stained
with anti-Synapsin. Red arrows point to CG,
blue arrows to VNCs. Note the deflection and
expansion of regenerating nervous tissue in
Smed-wnt5 RNAi animals. White arrows
indicate the disconnection between old and
new nervous tissue. Images are z-projections,
dorsal and ventral views are single sections.
(E)In situ hybridization analyis of gluR mRNA.
No brain tissue is detected in the tail.
(F)Summary of RNAi phenotypes of
regenerating trunk fragments. Shown are
dorsal and lateral views. Yellow indicates CG;
green, VNCs. A, anterior; P, posterior;
D, dorsal; V, ventral.
910 Download full-text
Olson, D. J. and Papkoff, J. (1994). Regulated expression of Wnt family members
during proliferation of C57mg mammary cells. Cell Growth Differ. 5, 197-206.
Petersen, C. P. and Reddien, P. W. (2008). Smed-βcatenin-1 is required for
anteroposterior blastema polarity in planarian regeneration. Science 319, 327-
Sakai, F., Agata, K., Orii, H. and Watanabe, K. (2000). Organization and
regeneration ability of spontaneous supernumerary eyes in planarians-Eye
regeneration field and pathway selection by optic nerves. Zool. Sci. 17, 375-381.
Saló, E. (2006). The power of regeneration and the stem-cell kingdom:
freshwater planarians (Platyhelminthes). BioEssays 28, 546-559.
Sánchez Alvarado, A. and Newmark, P. (1999). Double-stranded RNA
specifically disrupts gene expression during planarian regeneration. Proc. Natl.
Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5049-5054.
Shimizu, H., Julius, M. A., Giarré, M., Zheng, Z., Brown, A. M. and
Kitajewski, J. (1997).Transformation by Wnt family proteins correlates with
regulation of β-catenin. Cell Growth Differ. 8, 1349-1358.
Slusarski, D. C., Yang-Snyder, J., Busa, W. B. and Moon, R. T. (1997).
Modulation of embryonic intracellular Ca2+ signaling by Wnt-5A. Dev. Biol. 182,
Umesono, Y., Watanabe, K. and Agata. K. (1999).Distinct structural domains in
the planarian brain defined by the expression of evolutionarily conserved
homeobox genes. Dev. Genes Evol. 209, 31-39.
Wallingford, J. B., Vogeli, K. M. and Harland, R. M. (2001). Regulation of
convergent extension in Xenopus by Wnt5a and Frizzled-8 is independent of the
canonical Wnt pathway. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 45, 225-227.
Witze, E. S., Litman, E. S., Argast, G. M., Moon, R. T. and Ahn, N. G. (2008).
Wnt5a control of cell polarity and directional movement by polarized
redistribution of adhesion receptors. Science 320, 365-369.
Wong, G. T., Gavin, B. J. and McMahon, A. P. (1994). Differential
transformation of mammary epithelial cells by Wnt genes. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14,
Yoshikawa, S., McKinnon, R. D., Kokel, M. and Thomas, J. B. (2003). Wnt-
mediated axon guidance via the Drosophila Derailed receptor. Nature 422, 583-
Zhang, X., Zhu, J., Yang, G. Y., Wang, Q. J., Qian, L., Chen, Y. M., Chen, F.,
Tao, Y., Hu, H. S., Wang, T. and Luo, Z. (2007). Dishevelled promotes axon
differentiation by regulating atypical protein kinase C. Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 743-
Development 136 (6)