Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Is a Highly Potent Agonist for the Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor Splice Variant CAR2

Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Molecular pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.13). 03/2009; 75(5):1005-13. DOI: 10.1124/mol.108.053702
Source: PubMed


The human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, CAR1) regulates the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism in the liver. The CAR gene uses multiple alternative splicing events during pre-mRNA processing, thereby enhancing the CAR transcriptome. Previous reports have identified two prominent human CAR variants, CAR2 and CAR3, that possess four- and five-amino acid insertions in their ligand binding domains, respectively. Unlike the constitutively active reference form of the receptor, we now demonstrate that CAR2 is a ligand-activated receptor and comprises approximately 30% of the reference transcript level in human liver tissues in human hepatocytes. Furthermore, we identify the common plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as a highly potent and uniquely selective agonist of CAR2. Results from reporter transactivation and mammalian two-hybrid assays reveal that DEHP activates CAR2 at low nanomolar concentrations, results further supported by analysis of CAR target gene expression in primary human hepatocytes. In addition, comparative genomic analyses show that the typical mouse, rat, and marmoset models of DEHP toxicity cannot accurately profile potential human toxicity because of these species' inability to generate a CAR2-like transcript. The discovery that CAR2 is an ultimate human DEHP receptor identifies a novel pathway modulating human DEHP toxicity with potential clinical implications for a subset of patients undergoing critical care medical interventions.

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Available from: Scott S Auerbach, Oct 02, 2014
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    • "In the present study, DBP also induced binding activity of CAR in hPPARα mice but did not increase Cyp2b10-mRNA in that strain, though DBP has been reported to activate CAR in the liver of rats [43]. Interestingly, the CAR2 splice variant of human CAR is activated by DEHP [44], which suggests that human CAR may also play an important role in DEHP toxicity. Taken together, CAR-mediated effects by plasticizers should be noted as a novel aspect of their toxicities to provide a new rationale to evaluate toxicity correctly. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dibutylphthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) are used as plasticizers. Their metabolites activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, which may be related to their toxicities. However, species differences in the receptor functions between rodents and human make it difficult to precisely extrapolate their toxicity from animal studies to human. In this paper, we compared the species differences in the activation of mouse and human hepatic PPARα by these plasticizers using wild-type (mPPARα) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice. At 12 weeks old, each genotyped male mouse was classified into three groups, and fed daily for 2 weeks per os with corn oil (vehicle control), 2.5 or 5.0 mmol/kg DBP (696, 1392 mg/kg), DEHP (977, 1953 mg/kg), and DEHA (926, 1853 mg/kg), respectively. Generally, hepatic PPARα of mPPARα mice was more strongly activated than that of hPPARα mice when several target genes involving β-oxidation of fatty acids were evaluated. Interestingly, all plasticizers also activated hepatic constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) more in hPPARα mice than in mPPARα mice. Taken together, these plasticizers activated mouse and human hepatic PPARα as well as CAR. The activation of PPARα was stronger in mPPARα mice than in hPPARα mice, while the opposite was true of CAR.
    PPAR Research 06/2012; 2012(22):201284. DOI:10.1155/2012/201284 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    • "The CAR2 and CAR3 splice variants together appear to account for perhaps up to one third of the total CAR transcript pool present in human hepatocytes and are predicted to encode functional receptor proteins (Auerbach et al., 2003; Dekeyser et al., 2009). Further, both CAR2 and CAR3 have the significant property of encoding ligand-activated receptors that are not constitutively active, in contrast to the wild-type receptor, CAR1 (Auerbach et al., 2003; Dekeyser et al., 2009). Of these variants, whereas CAR2 demonstrates distinctive ligand activation profiles (Dekeyser et al., 2011), CAR3 appears to possess a ligand selectivity modeling that of wild-type receptor (Auerbach et al., 2005; Faucette et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as an important xenochemical sensor and transcriptional modulator in mammalian cells. Upon chemical activation, CAR undergoes nuclear translocation and heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor subsequent to its DNA target interaction. CAR is unusual among nuclear receptors in that it possesses a high level of constitutive activity in cell-based assays, obscuring the detection of ligand activators. However, a human splice variant of CAR, termed CAR3, exhibits negligible constitutive activity. In addition, CAR3 is activated by ligands with similar specificity as the reference form of the receptor. In this study, we hypothesized that similar CAR3 receptors could be constructed across various mammalian species' forms of CAR that would preserve species-specific ligand responses, thus enabling a more sensitive and differential screening assessment of CAR response among animal models. A battery of CAR3 receptors was produced in mouse, rat, and dog and comparatively evaluated with selected ligands together with human CAR1 and CAR3 in mammalian cell reporter assays. The results demonstrate that the 5-amino acid insertion that typifies human CAR3 also imparts ligand-activated receptor function in other species' CAR while maintaining signature responses in each species to select CAR ligands. These variant constructs permit in vitro evaluation of differential chemical effector responses across species and coupled with in vivo assays, the species-selective contributions of CAR in normal physiology and in disease processes such as hepatocarcinogenesis.
    Toxicological Sciences 07/2011; 123(2):550-62. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfr191 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    • "The studies presented here provide novel insights into the CAR/ PXR xenobiotic sensing systems and demonstrate that the variant CARs and PXR possess distinct ligand-selective activation profiles. Our previous observation that DEHP is a highly potent agonist of CAR2 (Dekeyser et al., 2009), coupled to our new findings, reveal that alternative splicing of CAR functions to enhance the receptors' ability to distinguish a broad range of xenobiotics that otherwise possess similar chemical properties. We also identify BPA as a CAR1 and CAR3 agonist, with little effect on CAR2 activation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phthalates and other endocrine-disruptive chemicals are manufactured in large quantities for use as plasticizers and other commercial applications, resulting in ubiquitous human exposure and thus, concern regarding their toxicity. Innate defense against small molecule exposures is controlled in large part by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The human CAR gene undergoes multiple alternative splicing events resulting in the CAR2 and CAR3 variant receptors. Recent studies from our laboratory show that CAR2 is potently and specifically activated by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). We hypothesized that alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing CAR's functional diversity, broadening the human receptors' repertoire of response to environmental xenobiotics. In these studies, we examine the interaction of alternatively spliced CARs and PXR with a range of suspected endocrine disruptors, including phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-N-nonylphenol (NP). Transactivation and two-hybrid studies in COS-1 cells revealed differential selectivity of endocrine-disrupting chemicals for the variant CAR and PXR. Ex vivo studies showed DEHP and di-isononyl phthalate potently induced CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. Mutation analysis of CAR2, in silico modeling, and ligand docking studies suggested that the SPTV amino acid insertion of CAR2 creates a unique ligand-binding pocket. Alternative gene splicing results in variant CAR receptors that selectively recognize phthalates and BPA. The interaction of phthalates with CAR and PXR suggests a xenobiotic response that is complex and biologically redundant.
    Toxicological Sciences 03/2011; 120(2):381-91. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfq394 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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