Retrospective review of 234 scaphoid fractures and non-unions treated with arthroscopy for union and complications

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, Guilford, CT 06437, USA.
Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society (Impact Factor: 1.26). 02/2008; 97(4):280-9.
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively review 234 consecutive cases of scaphoid fractures and nonunions treated using arthroscopy with the dorsal percutaneous implantation of a headless compression screw for healing and complications. Solid union of fracture is determined by CT scan. We identified 126 acute injuries, including 65 proximal pole fractures; 67 grossly displaced fractures; 12 trans-scaphoid perilunate dislocations including four trans-scaphoid trans-capitate fractures; and ten combined scaphoid and distal radius fractures. 108 scaphoid nonunions were identified. 98 were correctly aligned and ten had a humpback deformity which was correctable using arthroscopic assisted reduction techniques at the time of surgery. 82 presented with a fracture gap 2mm or greater requiring percutaneous bone grafting. 12 cases of avascular necrosis (AVN) were identified by MRI. 20 nonunions had surgery performed at other institutions. The mean time to surgery for the nonunions was 20 months. 99% union rate of acute scaphoid fractures was obtained by 12 weeks, as determined by CT scan. Two complications were identified (3%). One case of delayed healing was identified. this delayed union was treated with percutaneous bone grafting and continued on to heal uneventfully. The other complication was a case of volar trans-scaphoid peri-lunate dislocation. While the fracture healed, the patient developed a traumatic dislocation requiring a capitate-lunate arthrodesis. Treatment of scaphoid nonunions resulted in ten cases of delayed healing, which were treated with repeat percutaneous bone grafting. This represented a 9% complication rate. of the ten cases of delayed unions that were re-bone grafted, four failed to heal by nine months. This resulted in a 96% union rate of our nonunion group by nine months. when acute fracture healing was compared to nonunions the average healing of acute fractures as determined by CT scanning measuring trabecular bridging was 12 weeks, while the average healing of non-unions was 22 weeks. We conclude that the dorsal percutaneous treatment of scaphoid fractures and nonunions using arthroscopy is safe and effective. CT scans to evaluate scaphoid healing by measuring trabecular bridging at the fracture site was determined to be an excellent modality to evaluate scaphoid healing. While not witnessed in this series, the potential for complications requires proper training.

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    • "Outdated fixation techniques have a greater percentage of scaphoid non-union, more extended approach for appropriate hardware placement, and long-term complications related to the articular cartilage and the scaphoid blood supply [6,12,25–27]. However, modern fixation techniques are often done percutaneously or arthroscopically, and none of the above mention problems are of major concern [28,29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of a modified Matti-Russe technique for the treatment of scaphoid non-union and pseudarthrosis. The modification was based on the use of bone graft taken from the ipsilateral distal radius, rather than from the iliac crest, as originally described. Between 1987 and 2000, 23 consequent male patients with scaphoid waist non-union or pseudarthrosis underwent surgery by a modified Matti-Russe technique. During the 5-year follow-up, patient evaluation was based on radiological findings and the Green and O'Brien scoring system. Anatomy was restored and healing of the non-union was achieved in 21 (91.3%) patients. The other 2 patients failed to achieve union and underwent the same operation a second time, which was successful. According to the Green and O'Brien scoring system, 82.6% (19/23) of patients showed excellent results and 17.4% (4/23) showed good results at 2-year follow-up. At 5-year follow-up, 73.9% of patients (19/23) had excellent results and 26.0% (4/23) had good results. No early post-operative complications developed. Two patients demonstrated mild radiological radio-scaphoid arthritis at 2.5 years postoperatively. All patients returned to previous levels of activity. The standard Matti-Russe technique is an old but reliable and inexpensive method for the treatment of long-standing or neglected scaphoid non-unions or pseudarthroses. The modification of this established method, based on use of the distal radius as a donor site, reduces operative time, can be performed through a single approach, does not show donor site morbidity, and allows the use of regional anaesthesia.
    Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 02/2011; 17(2):MT7-12. DOI:10.12659/MSM.881376 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    • "The ideal treatment of scaphoid pseudoarthrosis has not yet been established and is still often controversial. Volar percutaneous cannulated screw fixation (Kim et al. 2010), dorsal percutaneous implantation of a headless compression screw (Slade et al. 2008), Acutrak screw or Herbert screw (Gregory et al. 2008) and synthes cannulated scaphoid screw and bone graft (Inaparthy and Nicholl 2008) are some of the treatments recently proposed to treat the scaphoid nonunion. Previously, casting and pulsed electromagnetic fields were postulated (Adams et al. 1992). "
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    ABSTRACT: The peculiar anatomical characteristics and precarious vascularization of the carpal scaphoid are responsible for a difficult healing of fractures and a fairly frequent subsequent evolution to pseudoarthrosis. Recently, extracorporeal shockwaves therapy (ESWT) has yielded encouraging results in the treatment of pseudoarthrosis of various bone segments. We report a retrospective study comparing the results of application of three sessions of shockwaves therapy (SW) with energy flux density (EFD) impulses of 0.09 (SD = 0.02) mJ/mm(2) ESWT emitted by an electromagnetic generator in 58 patients (group I) affected by pseudoarthrosis of the carpal scaphoid, with the results of surgical treatment consisting of stabilization and bone graft according to the Matti-Russe technique, performed in 60 subjects (controls, group II). There were no statistically significant differences in the mean duration of the pseudoarthrosis (p = 0.46), sex distribution (p = 0.41) and mean age at recruitment (p = 0.95) between the two patient groups. Posttreatment clinical-functional assessment, based on the Mayo Wrist Score, showed a significantly improved score, rising from 28-74.6 in group I already after 2 mo (p < 0.001), with 86.3% of the results judged as satisfactory or excellent; in group II the mean score rose from 27.5-74.2 after 2 mo, with 83.4% of the results judged as satisfactory or excellent (p < 0.001). At the same two-months follow-up (FU), radiographic consolidation was shown in 75.9% of patients in group I and 76.7% in group II. These improvements persisted at the subsequent controls at six and 12 mo in both groups. The Mayo Wrist Score and X-rays did not show statistically significant differences at the various FU visits in the two groups (p > 0.05). On the basis of our data, we can conclude that the results of ESWT are comparable with those of surgical stabilization and bone graft in the treatment of scaphoid pseudoarthrosis. In view of their minimal invasiveness, shockwaves should therefore be considered the treatment of choice of this disorder.
    Ultrasound in medicine & biology 08/2010; 36(8):1306-13. DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2010.05.004 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hand and wrist injuries are common in most athletic events and sports. Carpal fractures and ligamentous injuries are common in athletes and require physicians, trainers, and therapists who treat and diagnosis these injuries to have an understanding of the carpal bone anatomy and vascularity along with the potential for progression to instability. Research is still needed to further investigate the optimal treatments of all carpal injuries in athletes along with designing new means to prevent these injuries.
    Hand clinics 09/2009; 25(3):395-408. DOI:10.1016/j.hcl.2009.05.002 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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