Genome wide ChIP-chip analyses reveal important roles for CTCF in Drosophila genome organization
ABSTRACT Insulators or chromatin boundary elements are defined by their ability to block transcriptional activation by an enhancer and to prevent the spread of active or silenced chromatin. Recent studies have increasingly suggested that insulator proteins play a role in large-scale genome organization. To better understand insulator function on the global scale, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF in Drosophila by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by a tiling-array analysis. The analysis revealed CTCF binding to many known domain boundaries within the Abd-B gene of the BX-C including previously characterized Fab-8 and MCP insulators, and the Fab-6 region. Based on this finding, we characterized the Fab-6 insulator element. In genome-wide analysis, we found that dCTCF-binding sites are often situated between closely positioned gene promoters, consistent with the role of CTCF as an insulator protein. Importantly, CTCF tends to bind gene promoters just upstream of transcription start sites, in contrast to the predicted binding sites of the insulator protein Su(Hw). These findings suggest that CTCF plays more active roles in regulating gene activity and it functions differently from other insulator proteins in organizing the Drosophila genome.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Victor V Lobanenkov, May 30, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Hiroaki Kataoka11/2013; DOI:10.4267/2042/51872
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ABSTRACT: Chromatin insulators affect interactions between promoters and enhancers/silencers and function as barriers for the spreading of repressive chromatin. Drosophila insulator protein dCTCF marks active promoters and boundaries of many histone H3K27 trimethylation domains associated with repressed chromatin. In particular, dCTCF binds to such boundaries between the parasegment-specific regulatory domains of the Bithorax complex. Here we demonstrate that the evolutionarily conserved protein ENY2 is recruited to the zinc-finger domain of dCTCF and is required for the barrier activity of dCTCF-dependent insulators in transgenic lines. Inactivation of ENY2 by RNAi in BG3 cells leads to the spreading of H3K27 trimethylation and Pc protein at several dCTCF boundaries. The results suggest that evolutionarily conserved ENY2 is responsible for barrier activity mediated by the dCTCF protein.Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 08/2014; 9(9). DOI:10.4161/epi.32086 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chromatin insulators of higher eukaryotes functionally divide the genome into active and inactive domains. Furthermore, insulators regulate enhancer/promoter communication, which is evident from the Drosophila bithorax locus in which a multitude of regulatory elements control segment specific gene activity. Centrosomal protein 190 (CP190) is targeted to insulators by CTCF or other insulator DNA-binding factors. Chromatin analyses revealed that insulators are characterized by open and nucleosome depleted regions. Here, we wanted to identify chromatin modification and remodelling factors required for an enhancer blocking function. We used the well-studied Fab-8 insulator of the bithorax locus to apply a genome-wide RNAi screen for factors that contribute to the enhancer blocking function of CTCF and CP190. Among 78 genes required for optimal Fab-8 mediated enhancer blocking, all four components of the NURF complex as well as several subunits of the dREAM complex were most evident. Mass spectrometric analyses of CTCF or CP190 bound proteins as well as immune precipitation confirmed NURF and dREAM binding. Both co-localise with most CP190 binding sites in the genome and chromatin immune precipitation showed that CP190 recruits NURF and dREAM. Nucleosome occupancy and histone H3 binding analyses revealed that CP190 mediated NURF binding results in nucleosomal depletion at CP190 binding sites. Thus, we conclude that CP190 binding to CTCF or to other DNA binding insulator factors mediates recruitment of NURF and dREAM. Furthermore, the enhancer blocking function of insulators is associated with nucleosomal depletion and requires NURF and dREAM.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107765. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107765 · 3.53 Impact Factor