Osmotic stress induced by sodium chloride, sucrose or trehalose improves cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine oocytes.
ABSTRACT Exposure of porcine oocytes to increased concentrations of NaCl prior to manipulation has been reported not only to increase cryotolerance after vitrification, but also to improve developmental competence after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In the present study we compared the effects of NaCl with those of concentrated solutions of two non-permeable osmotic agents, namely sucrose and trehalose, on the cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine oocytes. In Experiment 1, porcine in vitro-matured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs; n = 1200) were exposed to 588 mOsmol NaCl, sucrose or trehalose solutions for 1 h, allowed to recover for a further 1 h, vitrified, warmed and subjected to parthenogenetic activation. Both Day 2 (where Day 0 is the day of activation) cleavage and Day 7 blastocyst rates were significantly increased after NaCl, sucrose and trehalose osmotic treatments compared with untreated controls (cleavage: 46 +/- 5%, 44 +/- 7%, 45 +/- 4% and 26 +/- 6%, respectively; expanded blastocyst rate: 6 +/- 1%, 6 +/- 2%, 7 +/- 2% and 1 +/- 1%, respectively). In Experiment 2, COCs (n = 2000) were treated with 588 mOsmol NaCl, sucrose or trehalose, then used as recipients for SCNT (Day 0). Cleavage rates on Day 1 did not differ between the NaCl-, sucrose-, trehalose-treated and the untreated control groups (92 +/- 3%, 95 +/- 3%, 92 +/- 2% and 94 +/- 2%, respectively), but blastocyst rates on Day 6 were higher in all treated groups compared with control (64 +/- 2%, 69 +/- 5%, 65 +/- 3% and 47 +/- 4%, respectively). Cell numbers of Day 6 blastocysts were higher in the control and NaCl-treated groups compared with the sucrose- and trehalose-treated groups. In conclusion, treatment of porcine oocytes with osmotic stress improved developmental competence after vitrification combined with parthenogenetic activation, as well as after SCNT.
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ABSTRACT: Oocytes enucleated at metaphase II stage can support reprogramming of transferred nucleus and further developing to term. However, the first polar body in mice sometimes migrates away from the original place of expulsion, so the chromosomes of the oocyte will displace from the first polar body. Thus, it is not always possible to successfully enucleate according to the position of the first polar body. Here we use sucrose treatment to visualize metaphase spindle fibers and chromosomes with standard light microscopy. In the manipulation medium containing 3% sucrose, oocytes of poor quality become shrunken, deformed or fragmented, while oocytes of good quality in the same medium would show a swelling around the metaphase chromosomes and a transparent spindle area, shaped like "infinity" and "0". So it is easy to remove the well-distinguished spindle and chromosomes in oocytes of good quality. Re-examined by Hoechst 33342 stain under the UV light, the enucleation rate was 100%. There was no significant difference in IVF and cleavage rates between the sucrose treatment and the control group. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that 3% sucrose pretreatment can give a method for evaluating embryo quality and more importantly, it can, under a common microscope, allow the visualization of the spindle and chromosomes in oocytes of good quality and hence efficiently improve enucleation rate without any harm.Molecular Reproduction and Development 05/2001; 58(4):432-6. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to improve cryotolerance using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pretreatment of porcine in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes, to facilitate their further developmental competence after parthenogenetic activation. A total of 1668 porcine IVM oocytes were used in our present study. The pressure tolerance and optimal duration of recovery after HHP treatment were determined. Oocytes were treated with either 20 or 40 MPa (200 and 400 times greater than atmospheric pressure) for 60 min, with an interval of 10, 70, and 130 min between pressure treatment and subsequent vitrification under each pressure parameter. Oocytes from all vitrification groups had much lower developmental competence than fresh oocytes (P<0.01) measured as cleavage and blastocyst rates. However, significantly higher blastocyst rates (P<0.01) were obtained in the groups of 20 MPa pressure, with either 70 (11.4+/-2.4%) or 130 (13.1+/-3.2%) min recovery, when compared with the vitrification control group without HHP treatment where no blastocysts were obtained. The influence of temperature at HHP treatment on further embryo development was also investigated. Treatments of 20 MPa with 70 min recovery were performed at 37 degrees C or 25 degrees C. Oocytes pressurized at 37 degrees C had a significantly higher blastocyst (14.1+/-1.4%) rate than those treated at 25 degrees C (5.3+/-1.1%; P<0.01). Our results demonstrate that HHP pretreatment could considerably improve the developmental competence of vitrified pig in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes. The HHP pretreatment will be tested as a means to improve survival and developmental competence at different developmental stages in different species including humans.Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 02/2008; 135(1):13-7. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Production of cloned pigs using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a repeatable and predictable procedure and multiple labs around the world have generated cloned pigs and genetically modified cloned pigs. Due to the integrated nature of the pork production industry, pork producers are the most likely to benefit and are in the best position to introduce cloning in to production systems. Cloning can be used to amplify superior genetics or be used in conjunction with genetic modifications to produce animals with superior economic traits. Though unproven, cloning could add value by reducing pig-to-pig variability in economically significant traits such as growth rate, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics. However, cloning efficiencies using SCNT are low, but predictable. The inefficiencies are due to the intrusive nature of the procedure, the quality of oocytes and/or the somatic cells used in the procedure, the quality of the nuclear transfer embryos transferred into recipients, pregnancy rates of the recipients, and neonatal survival of the clones. Furthermore, in commercial animal agriculture, clones produced must be able to grow and thrive under normal management conditions, which include attainment of puberty and subsequent capability to reproduce. To integrate SCNT into the pork industry, inefficiencies at each step of the procedure must be overcome. In addition, it is likely that non-surgical embryo transfer will be required to deliver cloned embryos, and/or additional methods to generate high health clones will need to be developed. This review will focus on the state-of-the-art for SCNT in pigs and the steps required for practical implementation of pig cloning in animal agriculture.Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement 02/2006; 62:303-15.