Article

mTOR-dependent signalling in Alzheimer's disease.

Karolinska Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, KI-ADRC, Stockholm, Sweden.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.7). 01/2009; 12(6B):2525-32. DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00509.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neurodegeneration and neurofibrillary degeneration are the two main pathological mechanisms of cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is not clear what factors determine the fates of neurons during the progress of the disease. Emerging evidence has suggested that mTOR-dependent signalling is involved in the two types of degeneration in AD brains. This review focuses on the roles of mTOR-dependent signalling in the pathogenesis of AD. It summarizes the recent advancements in the understanding of its roles in neurodegeneration and neurofibrillary degeneration, as well as the evidence achieved when mTOR-related signalling components were tested as potential biomarkers of cognitive impairments in the clinical diagnosis of AD.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
144 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a crucial cellular signaling hub that, like the nervous system itself, integrates internal and external cues to elicit critical outputs including growth control, protein synthesis, gene expression, and metabolic balance. The importance of mTOR signaling to brain function is underscored by the myriad disorders in which mTOR pathway dysfunction is implicated, such as autism, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmacological manipulation of mTOR signaling holds therapeutic promise and has entered clinical trials for several disorders. Here, we review the functions of mTOR signaling in the normal and pathological brain, highlighting ongoing efforts to translate our understanding of cellular physiology into direct medical benefit for neurological disorders.
    Neuron 10/2014; 84(2):275-291. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.09.034 · 15.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changes in ion channel expression are implicated in the etiology of epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to long-term aberrant expression of ion channels are not well understood. The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates activity-dependent protein synthesis in neurons. mTOR is overactive in epilepsy, suggesting that excessive protein synthesis may contribute to the neuronal pathology. In contrast, we found that mTOR activity and the microRNA miR-129-5p reduces the expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). When mTOR activity is low, Kv1.1 expression is high and the frequency of behavioral seizures is low. However, as behavioral seizure activity rises, mTOR activity increases and Kv1.1 protein levels drop. In CA1 pyramidal neurons, the reduction in Kv1.1 lowers the threshold for action potential firing. Interestingly, blocking mTOR activity with rapamycin reduces behavioral seizures and temporarily keeps Kv1.1 levels elevated. Overtime, seizure activity increases and Kv1.1 protein decreases in all animals, even those treated with rapamycin. Notably, the concentration of miR-129-5p, the negative regulator of Kv1.1 mRNA translation, increases by 21 days post-status epilepticus (SE), sustaining Kv1.1 mRNA translational repression. Our results suggest that following kainic-acid induced status epilepticus there are two phases of Kv1.1 repression: (1) an initial mTOR-dependent repression of Kv1.1 that is followed by (2) a miR-129-5p persistent reduction of Kv1.1.
    Neurobiology of Disease 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.09.011 · 5.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. One of the pathological hallmarks of AD is amyloid β (Aβ) deposition. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs whose expression levels change significantly during neuronal pathogenesis and may be used as diagnostic markers. Some miRNAs are important in AD development by targeting genes responsible for Aβ metabolism. However, a systematic assessment of the miRNA expression profile induced by Aβ-mediated neuronal pathogenesis is still lacking. In the present study, we examined miRNA expression profile by using the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of AD. Two sibling pairs of mice were examined, showing 30 and 24 miRNAs with significantly altered expression levels from each paired control, respectively. Nine known miRNAs were common in both groups. Prediction of putative target genes and functional annotation implied that these altered miRNAs affect many target genes mainly involved in PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides a general profile of miRNAs regulated by Aβ-associated signal pathways, which is helpful to understand the mechanism of Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction in AD development.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e101725. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101725 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads