Two yr mycophenolate mofetil plus low-dose calcineurin inhibitor for renal dysfunction after liver transplant.
ABSTRACT We assessed the efficacy and outcome of low through level of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and introducing mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in liver transplant (LT) patients with CNI-related renal dysfunction. Thirty LT patients were converted to combined therapy and compared with 30 patients used as a contemporary control group receiving CNI only. The two groups were matched for sex, age, months after LT, immunosuppressive treatment, creatinine level, presence of diabetes and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via Cockroft-Gault method. After two years, in the MMF serum creatinine decreased from 1.65 mg/dL (range 1.33-3.5) to 1.4 mg/dL (range 0.9-4.7) (p = 0.002) and GFR increased from 51 mL/min (range 18.9-72.2) to 57.6 mL/min (range 16-92.2) (p < 0.001), whereas the controls not showed any improvement. The logistic regression models employing improvement of creatinine and GFR of at least 10% with respect to baseline as dependent variables showed the use of MMF (p = 0.004 and p = 0.019, respectively) as the only statistically significant parameter. Multiple linear regression analysis identified only MMF as independent predictor of Deltacreatinine and DeltaGFR (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). No rejection episode was observed (three in controls). This study demonstrates the medium-term efficacy and safety of MMF plus low dose CNI in reducing nephrotoxicity in LT recipients.
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ABSTRACT: A formula has been developed to predict creatinine clearance (Ccr) from serum creatinine (Scr) in adult males: (see article)(15% less in females). Derivation included the relationship found between age and 24-hour creatinine excretion/kg in 249 patients aged 18-92. Values for Ccr were predicted by this formula and four other methods and the results compared with the means of two 24-hour Ccr's measured in 236 patients. The above formula gave a correlation coefficient between predicted and mean measured Ccr's of 0.83; on average, the difference predicted and mean measured values was no greater than that between paired clearances. Factors for age and body weight must be included for reasonable prediction.Nephron 02/1976; 16(1):31-41. · 13.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extensive renal ablation is associated with progressive sclerosis of the remnant kidney. Because lymphocytes and monocytes accumulate in the remnant kidney, it is likely that they play a role in the renal scarring. Therefore, we treated rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a drug that has an antiproliferative effect and that suppresses the expression of intercellular adhesion molecules. Sprague-Dawley rats with 5/6Nx received MMF (30 mg. kg-1. day-1 by daily gastric gavage, N = 15) or vehicle (N = 16). Ten additional rats were sham operated. All rats were fed a 30% protein diet. Body weight, serum creatinine, and urinary protein excretion were determined weekly. Lipid peroxidation, as a measure of oxidative stress observed by urinary malondialdehyde determinations, was performed every two weeks. Histologic studies were done in the remnant kidney four weeks (9 rats from the vehicle-treated group, 7 rats from the MMF group, and 5 sham-operated rats) and eight weeks after surgery (the remaining rats). Glomerular volume, sclerosis in glomeruli (segmental and global) and interstitium (semiquantitative scale), infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages (CD43- and ED1-positive cells), and expression of adhesion molecules (CD54, CD18, and CD11b) were analyzed. MMF treatment prevented the progressive increment in serum creatinine and the proteinuria observed in the 5/6 nephrectomized rats during the eight weeks of observation (P < 0.01). Weight gain was comparable in the MMF-treated and sham-operated rats, whereas weight gain was decreased in untreated 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Excretion of malondialdehyde increased after surgery but returned sooner to control levels in the MMF-treated rats. Increments in glomerular size and mean arterial blood pressure induced by renal ablation were not modified by MMF treatment. Eight weeks after surgery, segmental sclerosis was present in 48.4 +/- 8.35% (+/- sd) glomeruli in the vehicle-treated group versus 25 +/- 10.5% in the MMF-treated group (P < 0.001). Interstitial fibrosis was reduced significantly with MMF treatment (P < 0.001). Infiltration with CD43- and ED1-positive cells in glomeruli and interstitium was two to five times lower in MMF-treated rats (P < 0.01). Expression of adhesion molecules CD18 and CD11b was similarly reduced. MMF ameliorates the progressive renal damage in the remnant kidney after 5/6Nx. This effect is associated with a reduction in the infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes, whereas glomerular hypertrophy and systemic hypertension are unchanged.Kidney International 04/1999; 55(3):945-55. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Twelve consecutive liver transplant recipients with stable allograft function and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity were subjected to cyclosporine withdrawal in an attempt to halt and possibly reverse renal damage. Only patients who met the following criteria were included: (a) triple immunosuppression with cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisone; (b) stable graft function for at least 1 yr without rejection; and (c) serum creatinine greater than 2.1 mg/dl or renal clearance less than 35 ml/min. Cyclosporine was reduced by 50 mg every 3 wk until discontinuation, prednisone was temporarily increased from 10 to 20 mg/day and azathioprine was maintained at 2 mg/kg/day. Sustained improvement in kidney function in the 12 patients was minimal, with the mean serum creatine level decreasing from 2.5 +/- 0.5 mg/dl (mean +/- S.D.) at study entry to 2.4 +/- 1.2 mg/dl after a mean follow-up of 18 +/- 6 mo. In six patients, histologically confirmed cellular rejection developed after a mean of 5 +/- 6 mo from the time that cyclosporine withdrawal was begun. Two of six patients with rejection responded to bolus steroid therapy and are in stable condition at this writing with low-dose cyclosporine (2.8 and 3.2 mg/kg/day). Two patients initially responded to bolus steroids but later exhibited ductopenic rejection; one responded to treatment with FK 506 and the other died of sepsis. The two remaining patients were steroid unresponsive. One responded to treatment with OKT3 and is now stable on low-dose cyclosporine (2.3 mg/kg/day), but in the other ductopenic rejection developed and the patient died of sepsis during rescue therapy with FK 506.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Hepatology 05/1994; 19(4):925-32. · 12.00 Impact Factor