Effectiveness of anastrozole and cyproterone acetate in two brothers with familial male precocious puberty.

Paediatric Endocrinology Unit, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France.
Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM (Impact Factor: 0.75). 11/2008; 21(10):995-1002.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Testotoxicosis is a rare form of precocious puberty caused by a constitutively activating mutation in the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) gene. Symptoms include rapid virilization, accelerated growth and reduced adult height. We describe a rare association of testotoxicosis with a metaphyseal chondrodysplasia called cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) and report two brothers with testotoxicosis after 4 years of treatment. The brothers had a T577I mutation in the LHR gene. One brother also presented CHH. The older brother was treated with ketoconazole, then with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole and the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate. The younger brother received this combination as first-line therapy. Clinical improvements included reductions in growth velocity and bone maturation rate, which should result in taller adult stature. Tolerance was good. CONCLUSION: Combined treatment with anastrozole and cyproterone acetate is effective in improving the prognosis of adult height in testotoxicosis.

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    ABSTRACT: Aromatase inhibitors have been reported to increase height prediction in boys with short stature, and in boys and girls with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty. The following review discusses data published since 2008 regarding the safety and efficacy of aromatase inhibitors in pediatric patients. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors in combination with antiandrogens appear effective in preventing bone age advancement and virilization in boys with familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP). Letrozole, but not anastrozole, decreased bleeding episodes and bone age advancement in girls with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), despite ovarian enlargement. Letrozole-treated boys with idiopathic short stature (ISS) had no loss of bone density but were noted to have more vertebral abnormalities than a placebo group. Two years of letrozole therapy did not increase predicted adult height in pre and peripubertal boys with ISS when re-assessed 4 years after the treatment period. Aromatase inhibitors together with an antiandrogen appear to be a very promising treatment for FMPP. Further longer-term studies with letrozole are needed in MAS. The prevalence of vertebral deformities should be evaluated prospectively in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors. Adult height data are still lacking in pediatric patients treated with aromatase inhibitors. Two years of therapy in pre and peripubertal short boys does not appear to increase adult height. Hemogram, lipids, and bone density should be periodically assessed in treated patients. Further controlled studies are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy of aromatase inhibitors in pediatric patients.
    Current opinion in pediatrics 05/2010; 22(4):501-7. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recibido el 12 de septiembre de 2011; aceptado el 14 de septiembre de 2011 PALABRAS CLAVE Pubertad precoz periférica; Síndrome de McCune-Albright; Testotoxicosis Resumen La pubertad precoz periférica (PPP) es el resultado de la aparición anormalmente precoz de la pubertad, debido al aumento de esteroides sexuales sin evidenciarse activación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-gonadal. Es una patología mucho más infrecuente que la pubertad precoz central (PPC) y es secundaria a trastornos de origen genético o a patologías adquiridas muy heterogéneas. En los últimos años, los avances moleculares han contribuido notablemente en el conoci-miento de la fisiopatología de algunos de estos trastornos, muy en particular, en el síndrome de McCune-Albright y la testotoxicosis. Asimismo, las técnicas de imagen y de cuantificación hor-monal han permitido mejorar el diagnóstico precoz de trastornos adquiridos, especialmente, patología tumoral causante de PPP. Desafortunadamente, los avances médicos objetivados en el diagnóstico no se han visto refle-jados en el tratamiento médico del síndrome de McCune-Albright y la testotoxicosis. A pesar de haber probado diversas opciones terapéuticas en ambos trastornos, a día de hoy, los resultados son muy desalentadores, especialmente en el síndrome de McCune-Albright. A nuestro enten-der, este fracaso se sustenta en la ausencia de ensayos clínicos bien diseñados con la inclusión de un número adecuado de pacientes seguidos hasta el final de su crecimiento. © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.
    An Pediatr (Barc). 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Aromatase, an enzyme located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the conversion of androgens to estrogens in many tissues. The clinical features of patients with defects in CYP19A1, the gene encoding aromatase, have revealed a major role for this enzyme in epiphyseal plate closure, which has promoted interest in the use of inhibitors of aromatase to improve adult height. The availability of the selective aromatase inhibitors letrozole and anastrozole--currently approved as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer--have stimulated off-label use of aromatase inhibitors in pediatrics for the following conditions: hyperestrogenism, such as aromatase excess syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, McCune-Albright syndrome and functional follicular ovarian cysts; hyperandrogenism, for example, testotoxicosis (also known as familial male-limited precocious puberty) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia; pubertal gynecomastia; and short stature and/or pubertal delay in boys. Current data suggest that aromatase inhibitors are probably effective in the treatment of patients with aromatase excess syndrome or testotoxicosis, partially effective in Peutz-Jeghers and McCune-Albright syndrome, but probably ineffective in gynecomastia. Insufficient data are available in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia or functional ovarian cysts. Although aromatase inhibitors appear effective in increasing adult height of boys with short stature and/or pubertal delay, safety concerns, including vertebral deformities, a decrease in serum HDL cholesterol levels and increase of erythrocytosis, are reasons for caution.
    Nature Reviews Endocrinology 01/2011; 8(3):135-47. · 11.03 Impact Factor