R&D status of FPCCD VTX
ABSTRACT As a candidate of the vertex detector for experiments at ILC, fully depleted fine pixel CCDs (FPCCDs) are under development. We describe the basic concept of the FPCCD and report on preliminary results of the performance study of the first prototype FPCCD sensors.
arXiv:0902.2067v1 [physics.ins-det] 12 Feb 2009
R&D Status of FPCCD VTX
Yasuhiro Sugimoto1, Hirokazu Ikeda2, Akiya Miyamoto1, Tadashi Nagamine3,
Yousuke Takubo3, and Hitoshi Yamamoto3
1- KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan
2- JAXA, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510, Japan
3- Department of Physics, Tohoku University
Sendai 980-8578, Japan
As a candidate of the vertex detector for experiments at ILC, fully depleted fine pixel
CCDs (FPCCDs) are under development. We describe the basic concept of the FPCCD
and report on preliminary results of the performance study of the first prototype
For the vertex detector in ILC experiments, pixel occupancy is one of the most challenging
issues. Due to a large amount of electron-positron pairs created by the beam-beam interac-
tion, the pixel occupancy exceeds 10% if the signal is accumulated for one bunch train for
pixel detectors with standard (∼ 20 µm) pixel size used for the innermost layer.
In order to reduce the pixel occupancy to an acceptable level (< 1%), there are two
different approaches studied by several groups. One approach is to readout the signal of the
sensors about 20 times per one train. This method requires very fast readout speed and
very high peak power during trains. Another approach is to use about 20 times finer pixels
of the sensors. In this method, the signal is read out during the train interval of ∼ 200 ms.
Therefore, the peak power is quite low. The concept of the fully depleted fine pixel CCD
(FPCCD) is an idea to realize the latter approach .
2 Development of FPCCD sensors
Our goal of FPCCD R&D is to develop FPCCD sensors with the pixel size of about 5 µm.
In addition to the small size of the pixels, there are several challenges for the FPCCD R&D:
(1) The sensors have to be fully depleted to suppress the charge spread due to diffusion.
(2) Because very small signal (∼ 500 electrons) is expected for an inclined track traversing
a 5 µm pixel, the noise level of the sensor should be less than 50 electrons.
(3) Readout speed should be > 10 Mpixel/s to reduce charge transfer inefficiency.
(4) Power consumption (mainly by the output circuit) should be < 10 mW/channel in
order to keep the detector system at ∼ −60◦C with a gentle air (cool N2gas) flow.
(5) Horizontal register as small as the pixels has to be put in the image area.
(6) Wafer thickness should be as thin as ∼ 50 µm to suppress the multiple scattering.
Figure 1: Two options of multi-port readout of CCDs. Direction of vertical (parallel) transfer
is shown in red arrows and direction of horizontal (serial) transfer is shown by green arrows.
Multi-port readout of a sensor is indispensable to read out a large number of pixels
in 200 ms. There are two options for multi-port readout as shown in Figure 1. In the
option shown in Figure 1(a), which was adopted for the CCD sensors used for the vertex
detector of SLD, the number of vertical (parallel) transfer of the charge is larger than that
of horizontal (serial) transfer. On the other hand, the number of horizontal transfer is larger
than that of vertical transfer in the option shown in Figure 1(b). Our FPCCD design is
based on the option (b) from the view point of radiation tolerance (CTE:charge transfer
efficiency). Charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) due to traps caused by radiation damage
becomes smaller if 1/fclock<< τc, where τcis electron capture time constant (∼ 300 ns for
0.42 eV level). For horizontal transfer clock frequency of > 10 MHz and vertical transfer
clock frequency of < 1 MHz, the CTI associated with the vertical transfer is larger than the
CTI of horizontal transfer. Therefore, smaller number of vertical shift realized in the option
(b) is more advantageous. The horizontal register in option (b) has to be put in the image
area while keeping sensitivity to charged tracks.
We have already succeeded to develop fully-
depleted CCDs (the item (1) in the list above) by
using high resistivity epitaxial layer . In order
to tackle the challenges of (2)–(5) among the is-
sues listed above, we have fabricated the first pro-
totype FPCCD sensors collaborating with Hama-
matsu Photonics. The sensors are delivered in
packaged shape and as bare chips (see Figure 2).
The pixel size is 12 µm square in this prototype.
Each chip has 512 × 512 pixels and is read out
through four readout ports. White lines seen in
the image area in Figure 2 correspond to horizon-
Several variants of FPCCD sensors have been
manufactured. The sensor has several different de-
signs of the output amplifier. Two types of wafers
with the epitaxial-layer thickness of 24 µm and
Figure 2: Photograph of a bare chip of
prototype FPCCD sensor.
15 µm are used. For the gate oxide layer of the output transistors, two types of chips
with standard thickness and thin type are produced.
3 Characteristics of prototype sensors
Basic characteristics of the prototype FPCCD sensors are measured by the manufacturer
with the operating condition of VOD= 10 V , RL= 10 kΩ, readout frequency of 10 MHz at
room temperature. The output gain and the power consumption of the output amplifier are
5.2–6.9 µV/electron and 10–15 mW/channel, respectively, depending on the design of the
We have tested the prototype sensors us-
ing line-focused laser light at KEK. Figure 3
shows a close-up image of the line-focused
laser near the horizontal register taken by a
prototype FPCCD sensor. The first (bottom)
line corresponds to the horizontal register. It
can be seen that the horizontal register is sen-
sitive to light. Actually, the signal of the hor-
izontal register is significantly smaller than
standard pixels because the horizontal regis-
ter is partially covered by aluminum layer for
In the prototype FPCCDs, large dark cur-
rent on both horizontal edges was observed.
Another problem of charge injection into first
few tens of pixels of first few tens of lines was
found when vertical clock is held “high” for
20 ms before reading out a frame. In the next
batch of prototype in 2009, the latter problem is expected to be resolved. In addition,
increased full-well capacity is planned to be achieved in the next prototype.
Figure 3: Image of line-focused laser light
taken by a prototype FPCCD.
This work is partly supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 17540282 and
No. 18GS0202 from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), and No. 17043010
and No. 18034007 from Ministry of Education and Science in Japan.
 Y. Sugimoto, Proceedings of International Linear Collider Workshop LCWS05, Stanford, CA, March
 Y. Sugimoto, Proceedings of International Linear Collider Workshop LCWS2007, DESY, Hamburg,
May 2007, 483–485.