Radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations.
ABSTRACT Radiosurgery is an effective treatment option for patients with small to medium sized arteriovenous malformations. However, it is not generally accepted as an effective tool for larger (>14 cm(3)) arteriovenous malformations because of low obliteration rates. The authors assessed the applicability and effectiveness of radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations.
We performed a retrospective study of 46 consecutive patients with more than 14 ml of arteriovenous malformations who were treated with radiosurgery using a linear accelerator and gamma knife (GK). They were grouped according to their initial clinical presentation-17 presented with and 29 without haemorrhage. To assess the effect of embolization, these 46 patients were also regrouped into two subgroups-25 with and 21 without preradiosurgical embolization. Arteriovenous malformations found to have been incompletely obliterated after 3-year follow-up neuroimaging studies were re-treated using a GK.
The mean treatment volume was 29.5 ml (range, 14.0-65.0) and the mean marginal dose was 14.1 Gy (range, 10.0-20.0). The mean clinical follow-up periods after initial radiosurgery was 78.1 months (range, 34.0-166.4). Depending on the results of the angiography, 11 of 33 patients after the first radiosurgery and three of four patients after the second radiosurgery showed complete obliteration. Twenty patients received the second radiosurgery and their mean volume was significantly smaller than their initial volume (P = 0.017). The annual haemorrhage rate after radiosurgery was 2.9% in the haemorrhage group (mean follow-up 73.3 months) and 3.1% in the nonhaemorrhage group (mean follow-up 66.5 months) (P = 0.941). Preradiosurgical embolization increased the risk of haemorrhage for the nonhaemorrhage group (HR, 28.03; 95% CI, 1.08-6,759.64; P = 0.039), whereas it had no effect on the haemorrhage group. Latency period haemorrhage occurred in eight patients in the embolization group, but in no patient in the nonembolization group (P = 0.004).
Radiosurgery may be a safe and effective arteriovenous malformation treatment method that is worth considering as an alternative treatment option for a large arteriovenous malformation.
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ABSTRACT: The object of this study was to define the long-term outcomes and risks of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) management using 2 or more stages of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for symptomatic large-volume lesions unsuitable for surgery. In 1992, the authors prospectively began to stage the treatment of anatomical components to deliver higher single doses to AVMs with a volume of more than 10 cm(3). Forty-seven patients with such AVMs underwent volume-staged SRS. In this series, 18 patients (38%) had a prior hemorrhage and 21 patients (45%) underwent prior embolization. The median interval between the first-stage SRS and the second-stage SRS was 4.9 months (range 2.8-13.8 months). The median target volume was 11.5 cm(3) (range 4.0-26 cm(3)) in the first-stage SRS and 9.5 cm(3) in the second-stage SRS. The median margin dose was 16 Gy (range 13-18 Gy) for both stages. In 17 patients, AVM obliteration was confirmed after 2-4 SRS procedures at a median follow-up of 87 months (range 0.4-209 months). Five patients had near-total obliteration (volume reduction > 75% but residual AVM). The actuarial rates of total obliteration after 2-stage SRS were 7%, 20%, 28%, and 36% at 3, 4, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The 5-year total obliteration rate after the initial staged volumetric SRS with a margin dose of 17 Gy or more was 62% (p = 0.001). Sixteen patients underwent additional SRS at a median interval of 61 months (range 33-113 months) after the initial 2-stage SRS. The overall rates of total obliteration after staged and repeat SRS were 18%, 45%, and 56% at 5, 7, and 10 years, respectively. Ten patients sustained hemorrhage after staged SRS, and 5 of these patients died. Three of 16 patients who underwent repeat SRS sustained hemorrhage after the procedure and died. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis (excluding the second hemorrhage in the patient who had 2 hemorrhages), the cumulative rates of AVM hemorrhage after SRS were 4.3%, 8.6%, 13.5%, and 36.0% at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years, respectively. This corresponded to annual hemorrhage risks of 4.3%, 2.3%, and 5.6% for Years 0-1, 1-5, and 5-10 after SRS. Multiple hemorrhages before SRS correlated with a significantly higher risk of hemorrhage after SRS. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects were detected in 13% of patients, but no patient died as a result of an adverse radiation effect. Delayed cyst formation did not occur in any patient after SRS. Prospective volume-staged SRS for large AVMs unsuitable for surgery has potential benefit but often requires more than 2 procedures to complete the obliteration process. To have a reasonable chance of benefit, the minimum margin dose should be 17 Gy or greater, depending on the AVM location. In the future, prospective volume-staged SRS followed by embolization (to reduce flow, obliterate fistulas, and occlude associated aneurysms) may improve obliteration results and further reduce the risk of hemorrhage after SRS.Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2011; 116(1):54-65. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal connections between the arteries and veins, with possible serious consequences of intracranial hemorrhage. The curative treatment for AVMs includes microsurgery and radiosurgery, sometimes with embolization as an adjunct. However, controversies exist with the treatment options available for large to giant AVMs. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) is one treatment option for such difficult lesions. We aim to review recent literature, looking at the treatment outcome of HSRT in terms of AVM obliteration rate and complications. The rate of AVM obliteration utilizing HSRT as a primary treatment was comparable with that of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). For those not totally obliterated, HSRT makes them smaller and turns some lesions manageable by single-dose SRS or microsurgery. Higher doses per fraction seemed to exhibit better response. However, patients receiving higher total dose may be at risk for higher rates of complications. Fractionated regimens of 7 Gy × 4 and 6-6.5 Gy × 5 may be accepted compromises between obliteration and complication. Embolization may not be beneficial prior to HSRT in terms of obliteration rate or the volume reduction. Future work should aim on a prospectively designed study for larger patient groups and long-term follow-up results.Surgical Neurology International 01/2012; 3(Suppl 2):S105-10. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the quality of life (QOL) and employment status after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients who presented with seizure. Between 1997 and 2006, 78 AVM patients who presented with seizure and received radiosurgery were assessed using serial imaging tests, clinical evaluations that included employment status, and a QOL survey. The QOL questionnaire was developed as a retrospective screening tool to estimate the present QOL and the patient's self-rated relative changes (trend values) in QOL after radiosurgery. These results were correlated to one another using the Engel seizure frequency scoring system. The follow-up periods ranged from 48.0 to 151.0 months (mean, 92.5). The mean trend values and mean QOL scores in patients with seizure freedom or AVM obliteration were significantly greater than in patients without these outcomes (all P values < 0.05). Good radiosurgical outcomes were associated with attaining employment (all P values < 0.05). However, differences in employment status were not significant (P = 0.186) despite a higher proportion of patients who described their workplace activity as improved compared with their pre-radiosurgical activity at the last follow-up evaluation. Radiosurgery may improve QOL and employment status in AVM patients, especially patients who experience seizure freedom or AVM obliteration.European Journal of Neurology 02/2012; 19(7):984-91. · 4.16 Impact Factor