Radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations
ABSTRACT Radiosurgery is an effective treatment option for patients with small to medium sized arteriovenous malformations. However, it is not generally accepted as an effective tool for larger (>14 cm(3)) arteriovenous malformations because of low obliteration rates. The authors assessed the applicability and effectiveness of radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations.
We performed a retrospective study of 46 consecutive patients with more than 14 ml of arteriovenous malformations who were treated with radiosurgery using a linear accelerator and gamma knife (GK). They were grouped according to their initial clinical presentation-17 presented with and 29 without haemorrhage. To assess the effect of embolization, these 46 patients were also regrouped into two subgroups-25 with and 21 without preradiosurgical embolization. Arteriovenous malformations found to have been incompletely obliterated after 3-year follow-up neuroimaging studies were re-treated using a GK.
The mean treatment volume was 29.5 ml (range, 14.0-65.0) and the mean marginal dose was 14.1 Gy (range, 10.0-20.0). The mean clinical follow-up periods after initial radiosurgery was 78.1 months (range, 34.0-166.4). Depending on the results of the angiography, 11 of 33 patients after the first radiosurgery and three of four patients after the second radiosurgery showed complete obliteration. Twenty patients received the second radiosurgery and their mean volume was significantly smaller than their initial volume (P = 0.017). The annual haemorrhage rate after radiosurgery was 2.9% in the haemorrhage group (mean follow-up 73.3 months) and 3.1% in the nonhaemorrhage group (mean follow-up 66.5 months) (P = 0.941). Preradiosurgical embolization increased the risk of haemorrhage for the nonhaemorrhage group (HR, 28.03; 95% CI, 1.08-6,759.64; P = 0.039), whereas it had no effect on the haemorrhage group. Latency period haemorrhage occurred in eight patients in the embolization group, but in no patient in the nonembolization group (P = 0.004).
Radiosurgery may be a safe and effective arteriovenous malformation treatment method that is worth considering as an alternative treatment option for a large arteriovenous malformation.
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ABSTRACT: Treatment of giant cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains a challenge. To propose hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) as a part of staged treatment, and evaluate its effect by analyzing AVM volume changes. From 2001 to 2007, 20 AVMs larger than 5 cm were treated by HSRT and followed up using magnetic resonance imaging. Patients' median age was 34 years (8-61 years). Eleven patients presented with hemorrhage and 9 with seizure. Ten patients had previous embolization and radiosurgery had failed in 4. Thirteen AVMs (65%) were classified as Spetzler-Martin grade V and 7 as grade IV. Median pretreatment volume was 46.84 cm³ (12.51-155.38 cm³). Dose was 25 to 30 Gy in 5 to 6 daily fractions. Median follow-up was 32 months. Median AVM volume decreased to 13.51 cm³ (range, 0.55-147.14 cm³). Residual volume varied from 1.5% to 98%. Volume decreased 44% every year on average. We noted that 6-Gy fractions were more effective (P = .040); embolized AVM tended to respond less (P = .085). After HSRT, we reirradiated 4 AVMs, with 3 amenable to single dose and one with fractions. After HSRT, one patient had an ischemic stroke and one had increased seizure frequency. One AVM bled during follow-up (2.06%/year). No complete obliteration was confirmed. HSRT can turn some giant AVMs manageable for single-dose radiosurgery. Six-Gray fractions were better than 5-Gy and routine embolization seemed unhelpful. There was no increase in bleeding risk with this approach. Future studies with longer follow-up are necessary to confirm our observation.Neurosurgery 11/2010; 67(5):1253-9; discussion 1259. DOI:10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181efbaef · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe a 10-year experience in the use of radiosurgery (RS) for patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in Puerto Rico. This retrospective analysis was performed for all patients with AVMs treated with RS by the senior author (R.H.B.) in Puerto Rico. Between February 1999 and December 2009, a total of 83 patients underwent the procedure. All charts were reviewed for recollection of demographic data, and AVM and treatment characteristics. Clinical and radiographic follow-up information was collected retrospectively. Eighty-three patients were treated and 86 RS procedures for AVMs were performed during a 10-year period. Eight patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 75 patients included 36 males and 39 females, whose median age was 34.5 years. Hemorrhage was the initial presentation in 40% of patients. Fifty-seven AVMs (73%) were treated previously with endovascular neurosurgery, without success. The median volume of the malformation was 17.7 ml. Nearly 65% of the malformations were considered large (≥ 10 ml) in volume. Forty patients had AVMs with largest diameter ≥ 3.5 cm. The overall obliteration rate was 56.4%, and the median time for obliteration was 29 months. The AVMs ≥ 3.5 cm in diameter had a greater latency period than those < 3.5 cm (31 months vs 46 months, respectively; p = 0.01). In addition, AVM obliteration was inversely associated with its volume, especially in large lesions (p = 0.037). In bivariate analysis, patients achieving obliteration had lower Spetzler-Martin scores compared with patients in whom obliteration was not achieved (p = 0.009). Postradiosurgery hemorrhages were seen in 9 cases. Eleven patients underwent surgery after RS. Major neurological deficits developed in 9 patients, whereas 17 had only minor deficits. The occurrence of neurological deficits was significantly associated with lesions with volume ≥ 10 ml. Radiosurgery is a reasonable treatment option for AVMs in the majority of cases, in spite of the large, difficult-to-treat malformations.Journal of Neurosurgery 05/2011; 115(2):337-46. DOI:10.3171/2011.3.JNS10814 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The object of this study was to define the long-term outcomes and risks of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) management using 2 or more stages of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for symptomatic large-volume lesions unsuitable for surgery. In 1992, the authors prospectively began to stage the treatment of anatomical components to deliver higher single doses to AVMs with a volume of more than 10 cm(3). Forty-seven patients with such AVMs underwent volume-staged SRS. In this series, 18 patients (38%) had a prior hemorrhage and 21 patients (45%) underwent prior embolization. The median interval between the first-stage SRS and the second-stage SRS was 4.9 months (range 2.8-13.8 months). The median target volume was 11.5 cm(3) (range 4.0-26 cm(3)) in the first-stage SRS and 9.5 cm(3) in the second-stage SRS. The median margin dose was 16 Gy (range 13-18 Gy) for both stages. In 17 patients, AVM obliteration was confirmed after 2-4 SRS procedures at a median follow-up of 87 months (range 0.4-209 months). Five patients had near-total obliteration (volume reduction > 75% but residual AVM). The actuarial rates of total obliteration after 2-stage SRS were 7%, 20%, 28%, and 36% at 3, 4, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The 5-year total obliteration rate after the initial staged volumetric SRS with a margin dose of 17 Gy or more was 62% (p = 0.001). Sixteen patients underwent additional SRS at a median interval of 61 months (range 33-113 months) after the initial 2-stage SRS. The overall rates of total obliteration after staged and repeat SRS were 18%, 45%, and 56% at 5, 7, and 10 years, respectively. Ten patients sustained hemorrhage after staged SRS, and 5 of these patients died. Three of 16 patients who underwent repeat SRS sustained hemorrhage after the procedure and died. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis (excluding the second hemorrhage in the patient who had 2 hemorrhages), the cumulative rates of AVM hemorrhage after SRS were 4.3%, 8.6%, 13.5%, and 36.0% at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years, respectively. This corresponded to annual hemorrhage risks of 4.3%, 2.3%, and 5.6% for Years 0-1, 1-5, and 5-10 after SRS. Multiple hemorrhages before SRS correlated with a significantly higher risk of hemorrhage after SRS. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects were detected in 13% of patients, but no patient died as a result of an adverse radiation effect. Delayed cyst formation did not occur in any patient after SRS. Prospective volume-staged SRS for large AVMs unsuitable for surgery has potential benefit but often requires more than 2 procedures to complete the obliteration process. To have a reasonable chance of benefit, the minimum margin dose should be 17 Gy or greater, depending on the AVM location. In the future, prospective volume-staged SRS followed by embolization (to reduce flow, obliterate fistulas, and occlude associated aneurysms) may improve obliteration results and further reduce the risk of hemorrhage after SRS.Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2011; 116(1):54-65. DOI:10.3171/2011.9.JNS11177 · 3.15 Impact Factor