Radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations.
ABSTRACT Radiosurgery is an effective treatment option for patients with small to medium sized arteriovenous malformations. However, it is not generally accepted as an effective tool for larger (>14 cm(3)) arteriovenous malformations because of low obliteration rates. The authors assessed the applicability and effectiveness of radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations.
We performed a retrospective study of 46 consecutive patients with more than 14 ml of arteriovenous malformations who were treated with radiosurgery using a linear accelerator and gamma knife (GK). They were grouped according to their initial clinical presentation-17 presented with and 29 without haemorrhage. To assess the effect of embolization, these 46 patients were also regrouped into two subgroups-25 with and 21 without preradiosurgical embolization. Arteriovenous malformations found to have been incompletely obliterated after 3-year follow-up neuroimaging studies were re-treated using a GK.
The mean treatment volume was 29.5 ml (range, 14.0-65.0) and the mean marginal dose was 14.1 Gy (range, 10.0-20.0). The mean clinical follow-up periods after initial radiosurgery was 78.1 months (range, 34.0-166.4). Depending on the results of the angiography, 11 of 33 patients after the first radiosurgery and three of four patients after the second radiosurgery showed complete obliteration. Twenty patients received the second radiosurgery and their mean volume was significantly smaller than their initial volume (P = 0.017). The annual haemorrhage rate after radiosurgery was 2.9% in the haemorrhage group (mean follow-up 73.3 months) and 3.1% in the nonhaemorrhage group (mean follow-up 66.5 months) (P = 0.941). Preradiosurgical embolization increased the risk of haemorrhage for the nonhaemorrhage group (HR, 28.03; 95% CI, 1.08-6,759.64; P = 0.039), whereas it had no effect on the haemorrhage group. Latency period haemorrhage occurred in eight patients in the embolization group, but in no patient in the nonembolization group (P = 0.004).
Radiosurgery may be a safe and effective arteriovenous malformation treatment method that is worth considering as an alternative treatment option for a large arteriovenous malformation.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. The management of Spetzler-Martin Grade-IV and -V arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is controversial due to their uncertain natural history, the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with microsurgical resection, and the relatively low rate of successful obliteration from less invasive approaches such as radiosurgery and embolization. We present our radiosurgical results for high-grade AVMs. Methods. We identified all patients with Spetzler-Martin Grade-IV and -V AVMs treated with single-session radiosurgery at the University of Virginia between 1989 and 2009. Patients with less than 2 years of follow-up without obliteration were excluded. This yielded 110 patients with a median age 27.6 years. The median AVM volume was 5.7 cc and prescription dose was 19 Gy. The median radiographic and clinical follow-up intervals were 88 and 97 months, respectively. Results. Complete AVM obliteration was identified on MRI only in 11 patients (10%) and confirmed by DSA in 38 patients (34%) for a cumulative obliteration rate of 44%. The actuarial rates of obliteration at 3 and 5 years were 10% and 23%, respectively. The mean and median times to obliteration were 60 months and 43 months, respectively. Significant independent predictors of obliteration were no pre-radiosurgery embolization (P = 0.008), superficial location (P = 0.001), and higher prescription dose (P = 0.028). The annual rate of post-radiosurgery hemorrhage was 3.0%, and symptomatic RIC was observed in 12% of patients. Unruptured AVMs were more likely to have RIC (P = 0.005). The rates of temporary and permanent post-radiosurgery clinical deterioration were 9% and 10%, respectively. Conclusion. Single-session radiosurgery is an acceptable treatment option for select patients harboring high-grade AVMs for which microsurgery or conservative management are associated with an unacceptably high risk of adverse outcomes.British Journal of Neurosurgery 12/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object The aim in this paper was to compare the outcomes of dose-staged and volume-staged stereotactic radio-surgery (SRS) in the treatment of large (> 10 cm(3)) arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed. Studies written in the English language with at least 5 patients harboring large (> 10 cm(3)) AVMs treated with dose- or volume-staged SRS that reported post-treatment outcomes data were selected for review. Demographic information, radiosurgical treatment parameters, and post-SRS outcomes and complications were analyzed for each of these studies. Results The mean complete obliteration rates for the dose- and volume-staged groups were 22.8% and 47.5%, respectively. Complete obliteration was demonstrated in 30 of 161 (18.6%) and 59 of 120 (49.2%) patients in the dose- and volume-staged groups, respectively. The mean rates of symptomatic radiation-induced changes were 13.5% and 13.6% in dose- and volume-staged groups, respectively. The mean rates of cumulative post-SRS latency period hemorrhage were 12.3% and 17.8% in the dose- and volume-staged groups, respectively. The mean rates of post-SRS mortality were 3.2% and 4.6% in dose- and volume-staged groups, respectively. Conclusions Volume-staged SRS affords higher obliteration rates and similar complication rates compared with dose-staged SRS. Thus, volume-staged SRS may be a superior approach for large AVMs that are not amenable to single-session SRS. Staged radiosurgery should be considered as an efficacious component of multimodality AVM management.Neurosurgical FOCUS 09/2014; 37(3):E18. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object The effectiveness and risk of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of partially embolized intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remain controversial. The aim of this analysis was to assess current evidence regarding the efficiency and safety of SRS for AVM patients with and without prior embolization. Methods To compare SRS in patients with and without embolization, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of studies by searching the literature via PubMed and EMBASE for the period between January 2000 and December 2013, complemented by a hand search. Primary outcome was the rate of AVM obliteration on a 3-year follow-up angiogram. Secondary outcome was the rate of hemorrhage at 3 years after SRS. Tertiary outcome was permanent neurological deficits related to radiation-induced changes. Results Ten studies eligible for analysis included 1988 patients: 593 had undergone embolization followed by SRS and 1395 had undergone SRS alone. The AVM obliteration rate was significantly lower in patients who had undergone embolization followed by SRS than in those who had undergone SRS alone (41.0% vs 59%, OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.37-0.56, p < 0.00001). However, the rates of hemorrhage (7.3% vs 5.6%, OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.74-1.83, p = 0.50) and permanent neurological deficits related to radiation-induced changes (3.3% vs 3.4%, OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.64-3.11, p = 0.39) were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions Embolization before SRS significantly decreases the AVM obliteration rate. However, there is no significant difference in the risk of hemorrhage and permanent neurological deficits after SRS alone and following embolization. Further validation by well-designed prospective or randomized cohort studies is still needed.Neurosurgical FOCUS 09/2014; 37(3):E16. · 2.14 Impact Factor