Radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations
ABSTRACT Radiosurgery is an effective treatment option for patients with small to medium sized arteriovenous malformations. However, it is not generally accepted as an effective tool for larger (>14 cm(3)) arteriovenous malformations because of low obliteration rates. The authors assessed the applicability and effectiveness of radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations.
We performed a retrospective study of 46 consecutive patients with more than 14 ml of arteriovenous malformations who were treated with radiosurgery using a linear accelerator and gamma knife (GK). They were grouped according to their initial clinical presentation-17 presented with and 29 without haemorrhage. To assess the effect of embolization, these 46 patients were also regrouped into two subgroups-25 with and 21 without preradiosurgical embolization. Arteriovenous malformations found to have been incompletely obliterated after 3-year follow-up neuroimaging studies were re-treated using a GK.
The mean treatment volume was 29.5 ml (range, 14.0-65.0) and the mean marginal dose was 14.1 Gy (range, 10.0-20.0). The mean clinical follow-up periods after initial radiosurgery was 78.1 months (range, 34.0-166.4). Depending on the results of the angiography, 11 of 33 patients after the first radiosurgery and three of four patients after the second radiosurgery showed complete obliteration. Twenty patients received the second radiosurgery and their mean volume was significantly smaller than their initial volume (P = 0.017). The annual haemorrhage rate after radiosurgery was 2.9% in the haemorrhage group (mean follow-up 73.3 months) and 3.1% in the nonhaemorrhage group (mean follow-up 66.5 months) (P = 0.941). Preradiosurgical embolization increased the risk of haemorrhage for the nonhaemorrhage group (HR, 28.03; 95% CI, 1.08-6,759.64; P = 0.039), whereas it had no effect on the haemorrhage group. Latency period haemorrhage occurred in eight patients in the embolization group, but in no patient in the nonembolization group (P = 0.004).
Radiosurgery may be a safe and effective arteriovenous malformation treatment method that is worth considering as an alternative treatment option for a large arteriovenous malformation.
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ABSTRACT: Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal connections between the arteries and veins, with possible serious consequences of intracranial hemorrhage. The curative treatment for AVMs includes microsurgery and radiosurgery, sometimes with embolization as an adjunct. However, controversies exist with the treatment options available for large to giant AVMs. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) is one treatment option for such difficult lesions. We aim to review recent literature, looking at the treatment outcome of HSRT in terms of AVM obliteration rate and complications. The rate of AVM obliteration utilizing HSRT as a primary treatment was comparable with that of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). For those not totally obliterated, HSRT makes them smaller and turns some lesions manageable by single-dose SRS or microsurgery. Higher doses per fraction seemed to exhibit better response. However, patients receiving higher total dose may be at risk for higher rates of complications. Fractionated regimens of 7 Gy × 4 and 6-6.5 Gy × 5 may be accepted compromises between obliteration and complication. Embolization may not be beneficial prior to HSRT in terms of obliteration rate or the volume reduction. Future work should aim on a prospectively designed study for larger patient groups and long-term follow-up results.Surgical Neurology International 04/2012; 3(Suppl 2):S105-10. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.95421 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object The effectiveness and risk of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of partially embolized intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remain controversial. The aim of this analysis was to assess current evidence regarding the efficiency and safety of SRS for AVM patients with and without prior embolization. Methods To compare SRS in patients with and without embolization, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of studies by searching the literature via PubMed and EMBASE for the period between January 2000 and December 2013, complemented by a hand search. Primary outcome was the rate of AVM obliteration on a 3-year follow-up angiogram. Secondary outcome was the rate of hemorrhage at 3 years after SRS. Tertiary outcome was permanent neurological deficits related to radiation-induced changes. Results Ten studies eligible for analysis included 1988 patients: 593 had undergone embolization followed by SRS and 1395 had undergone SRS alone. The AVM obliteration rate was significantly lower in patients who had undergone embolization followed by SRS than in those who had undergone SRS alone (41.0% vs 59%, OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.37-0.56, p < 0.00001). However, the rates of hemorrhage (7.3% vs 5.6%, OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.74-1.83, p = 0.50) and permanent neurological deficits related to radiation-induced changes (3.3% vs 3.4%, OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.64-3.11, p = 0.39) were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions Embolization before SRS significantly decreases the AVM obliteration rate. However, there is no significant difference in the risk of hemorrhage and permanent neurological deficits after SRS alone and following embolization. Further validation by well-designed prospective or randomized cohort studies is still needed.Neurosurgical FOCUS 09/2014; 37(3):E16. DOI:10.3171/2014.6.FOCUS14178 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. The management of Spetzler-Martin Grade-IV and -V arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is controversial due to their uncertain natural history, the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with microsurgical resection, and the relatively low rate of successful obliteration from less invasive approaches such as radiosurgery and embolization. We present our radiosurgical results for high-grade AVMs. Methods. We identified all patients with Spetzler-Martin Grade-IV and -V AVMs treated with single-session radiosurgery at the University of Virginia between 1989 and 2009. Patients with less than 2 years of follow-up without obliteration were excluded. This yielded 110 patients with a median age 27.6 years. The median AVM volume was 5.7 cc and prescription dose was 19 Gy. The median radiographic and clinical follow-up intervals were 88 and 97 months, respectively. Results. Complete AVM obliteration was identified on MRI only in 11 patients (10%) and confirmed by DSA in 38 patients (34%) for a cumulative obliteration rate of 44%. The actuarial rates of obliteration at 3 and 5 years were 10% and 23%, respectively. The mean and median times to obliteration were 60 months and 43 months, respectively. Significant independent predictors of obliteration were no pre-radiosurgery embolization (P = 0.008), superficial location (P = 0.001), and higher prescription dose (P = 0.028). The annual rate of post-radiosurgery hemorrhage was 3.0%, and symptomatic RIC was observed in 12% of patients. Unruptured AVMs were more likely to have RIC (P = 0.005). The rates of temporary and permanent post-radiosurgery clinical deterioration were 9% and 10%, respectively. Conclusion. Single-session radiosurgery is an acceptable treatment option for select patients harboring high-grade AVMs for which microsurgery or conservative management are associated with an unacceptably high risk of adverse outcomes.British Journal of Neurosurgery 12/2013; 28(5). DOI:10.3109/02688697.2013.872227 · 0.95 Impact Factor