Histopathologic variability in children with eosinophilic esophagitis.

Childrens's Memorial Hospital, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2951, USA.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 9.21). 02/2009; 104(3):716-21. DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2008.117
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is based on histologic findings of eosinophilia in the esophageal squamous epithelium in patients presenting with esophageal symptoms. Variability in the degree of squamous epithelial eosinophil infiltration presents a challenge to diagnostic accuracy. We examined the histopathologic features in a well-defined cohort of children with EoE to derive an optimal number of biopsies needed for diagnosis.
A total of 30 patients diagnosed with EoE based on>15 eosinophils per high-power field (eos/HPF) were evaluated. The diagnosis of EoE was based on persistent esophageal eosinophilia following acid suppression therapy. All patients had mid and distal biopsy specimens that were analyzed along with 24-h pH probe studies.
A total of 221 biopsy specimens were reviewed with a median of 7.8 (range, 5-8) specimens per patient. Eight patients demonstrated abnormal pH studies. The median eos/HPF was 41 (range, 0-288 eos/HPF). Using a criterion of>15 eos/HPF, the diagnostic sensitivity of a single biopsy was 73%, which increased to 84%, 97% and 100% for two, three and six biopsies, respectively. Five patients (17%) would not have met the criteria for diagnosis if biopsies were only taken from the mid esophagus whereas one patient (3%) would have been missed if only distal biopsies were analyzed.
Significant histologic variability exists among biopsy specimens from pediatric patients with EoE. Using the criterion of>15 eos/HPF, three biopsy specimens achieved a diagnosis of EoE in 97% of patients. Histopathologic changes consistent with EoE can persist following proton pump inhibitor therapy in patients with EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease when the latter is defined by increased distal esophageal acid exposure.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) shows characteristic microscopic pathologic features in endoscopically obtained esophageal biopsies, including an eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrate in esophageal epithelium, but other inflammatory cells are also increased. Additional alterations are found in epithelium and lamina propria. Esophageal biopsy pathology is a sensitive but not specific marker for EoE related to antigen exposure. Several of the pathologic features of EoE correlate with dysregulated genes in the EoE transcriptome. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases affecting the remainder of the gastrointestinal tract are less well characterized; this article discusses pathologic features in mucosal biopsies that could form the basis for diagnosis and future study.
    Gastroenterology clinics of North America 06/2014; 43(2):257-268. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune/antigen mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus. It comprises a separate entity of increasing incidence and prevalence in children and adults. The disease is characterized by histological evidence of dense esophageal tissue eosinophilia in the presence of a variety of upper GI symptoms including vomiting, dysphagia, food impaction, and odynophagia. Cornerstone of treatment is dietary intervention and/or the off-label use of swallowed topical corticosteroids. New drug therapies are under investigation. In this review, we focus on the diagnostic approach and the currently available treatment strategies.
    Frontiers in Pediatrics 11/2014; 2:129.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has emerged as a common cause of dysphagia and food impaction in children and adults. A trial of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is a mandatory diagnostic first step, given that at least one third of patients with suspected EoE will have PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. Once EoE is diagnosed, short-and long-term therapeutic decision making may rely on patient symptoms, phenotype (inflammatory vs fibrostenotic) and preferences. Currently, the most reliable therapeutic targets are mucosal healing and caliber abnormalities resolution. Topical steroids followed by endoscopic dilation are recommended in symptomatic narrow caliber esophagus/strictures, whereas either topical steroids or dietary therapy are good short-term options for mucosal inflammation. Maintenance anti-inflammatory therapy is necessary to prevent esophageal fibrotic remodeling and stricture formation.
    Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology 05/2014;