Changes in Bar Path Kinematics and Kinetics Through Use of Summary Feedback in Power Snatch Training
ABSTRACT This study investigated kinematic and kinetic variable changes in the power snatch (PS) after 4 weeks of training and the use of summary feedback. Twenty-four collegiate football players participated as subjects in this study. The subjects were pretested for their 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and were separated into feedback (FG; n = 12) and control (CG; n = 12) groups. The FG was provided with augmented feedback (AF) during power snatch training sessions, which took place 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The AF is defined as information that is received in addition to what is naturally available. Variables measured include peak force (PF), peak power (PP), and several kinematic variables at 50, 70, and 90% of the subjects' pre-1RM. The PF was improved at 50% 1RM from 567 +/- 202 to 769 +/- 230 N, at 70% from 725 +/- 186 to 890 +/- 199 N, and at 90% from 822 +/- 197 to 1008 +/- 201 N in the FG (p <or= 0.05). The PP was increased at 50% 1RM from 2061 +/- 562 to 2538 +/- 498 W, at 70% from 2321 +/- 743 to 2754 +/- 629 W, and at 90% from 2076 +/- 437 to 2491 +/- 526 W in the FG (p <or= 0.05). Variables with respect to bar path kinematics improved significantly. No improvements in kinetics or kinematics were noted in the CG. These results indicate that both kinematic and kinetic variables improve through training and AF. Practitioners wishing to improve weightlifting performance should attempt to use evidence-based AF.
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ABSTRACT: The purposes of the study were to track weightlifters' barbell acceleration with a portable accelerometer over three training sessions to examine test-retest reliability and to compare peak barbell acceleration at different training intensities. Twelve nationally ranked weightlifters volunteered for this study. The portable accelerometer was attached to the right side of the barbell to measure barbell resultant acceleration during the snatch lift at a sampling frequency of 100 Hz. The data were collected over three training sessions at intensity levels of 80%, 85%, and 90% of one repetition maximum. The data were analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the three training sessions and one-way repeated measure ANOVA to compare the difference in peak barbell acceleration at three intensities. Results showed that the device was highly reliable with an ICC of 0.88 and 95% confidence interval of 0.81-0.93. There were significant differences in peak barbell acceleration at various lifting intensities, indicating a decline of the acceleration as the mass of the barbell became heavier. The portable accelerometer seems useful in measuring barbell acceleration data, which can be analyzed in future studies to monitor a weightlifter's performance in a practical setting instead of testing at a laboratory.Sports Biomechanics 11/2012; 11(4):524-31. DOI:10.1080/14763141.2012.724703 · 0.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force development of weightlifters is ~15–20% and ~13–16% greater, respectively, than in other strength and power athletes. In addition, weightlifting training has been shown to reduce the typical sex-related difference in the expression of neuromuscular strength and power. However, this apparent sex-related difference appears to be augmented with increasing adult age demonstrating that women undergo a greater age-related decline in muscle shortening velocity and peak power when compared with men. Weightlifting training and competition has been shown to induce significant structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system. The collective evidence shows that these adaptations are physiological as opposed to pathological. Finally, the acute exercise-induced testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone responses of weightlifters have similarities to that of following conventional strength and hypertrophy protocols involving large muscle mass exercises. The routine assessment of the basal testosterone: cortisol ratio may be beneficial when attempting to quantify the adaptive responses to weightlifting training. As competitive weightlifting is becoming increasingly popular around the world, further research addressing the physiological responses and adaptations of female weightlifters and younger (i.e. ≤17 years of age) and older (i.e. ≥35 years of age) weightlifters of both sexes is required.Sports Medicine 09/2012; 42(9). DOI:10.1007/BF03262294 · 5.32 Impact Factor