Long-term use of beta-carotene, retinol, lycopene, and lutein supplements and lung cancer risk: results from the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study.

Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.98). 02/2009; 169(7):815-28. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwn409
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT High-dose beta-carotene supplementation in high-risk persons has been linked to increased lung cancer risk in clinical trials; whether effects are similar in the general population is unclear. The authors examined associations of supplemental beta-carotene, retinol, vitamin A, lutein, and lycopene with lung cancer risk among participants, aged 50-76 years, in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort Study in Washington State. In 2000-2002, eligible persons (n = 77,126) completed a 24-page baseline questionnaire, including detailed questions about supplement use (duration, frequency, dose) during the previous 10 years from multivitamins and individual supplements/mixtures. Incident lung cancers (n = 521) through December 2005 were identified by linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Longer duration of use of individual beta-carotene, retinol, and lutein supplements (but not total 10-year average dose) was associated with statistically significantly elevated risk of total lung cancer and histologic cell types; for example, hazard ratio = 2.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.28, 3.17 for individual supplemental lutein with total lung cancer and hazard ratio = 3.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 8.07 for individual beta-carotene with small-cell lung cancer for >4 years versus no use. There was little evidence for effect modification by gender or smoking status. Long-term use of individual beta-carotene, retinol, and lutein supplements should not be recommended for lung cancer prevention, particularly among smokers.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One-third of all cancers are preventable through lifestyle choices including diet and physical activity, and the role that diet may play in cancer prevention has been studied over time. Phytochemicals, including carotenoids and glucosinolates, are found in specific vegetables and have been the focus of some of these studies with varied results. Prevention recommendations encourage an increase of plant foods including nonstarchy vegetables. This review attempts to examine current research associated with carotenoid- and glucosinolate-containing vegetables and the potential role for credentialed nutrition professionals to promote these vegetables in clinical practice.
    Topics in clinical nutrition 01/2014; 29(1):33-46. DOI:10.1097/01.TIN.0000443025.28900.66
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biologically active compounds are considered as powerful food factors that elicit profound effects on the maintenance of human health, and disease prevention. The research into how bioactive compounds work and their role in disease prevention in vitro and in vivo is rapidly expanding. Carotenoids are one among several classes of biologically active compounds that have been reported to possess greater antioxidant and anti-cancer activity. Today, this emerging class of nutrients is the driving force in the nutritional supplement industry, and serves as a new frontier in cancer and cardiovascular research. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is the second most common disease responsible for maximum mortality with about 8.2 million deaths, and the global cancer burden rises to 14.1 million new cases in 2012. This review mainly focused to summarize the anti-cancer therapeutic targets of carotenoids by highlighting the important hallmarks of cancer in terms of (i) cell cycle arrest, (ii) resistance to apoptosis, (iii) metastasis and (iv) angiogenesis alongside the relation of carotenoids in cancer epidemiology.
    Journal of Functional Foods 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.10.017 · 4.48 Impact Factor


Available from