Essential role of nephrocystin in photoreceptor intraflagellar transport in mouse.
ABSTRACT Nephrocystin mutations account for the vast majority of juvenile nephronophthisis, the most common inherited cause of renal failure in children. Nephrocystin has been localized to the ciliary transition zone of epithelial cells or its analogous structure, connecting cilium of retinal photoreceptors. Thus, the retinal degeneration associated with nephronophthisis may be explained by a functional ciliary defect. However, the function of nephrocystin in cilium assembly and maintenance of common epithelial cells and photoreceptors is still obscure. Here, we used Nphp1-targeted mutant mice and transgenic mice expressing EmGFP-tagged nephrocystin to demonstrate that nephrocystin located at connecting cilium axoneme can affect the sorting mechanism and transportation efficiency of the traffic machinery between inner and outer segments of photoreceptors. This traffic machinery is now recognized as intraflagellar transport (IFT); a microtubule-based transport system consisting of motors, IFT particles and associated cargo molecules. Nephrocystin seems to control some of the IFT particle components moving along the connecting cilia so as to regulate this inter-segmental traffic. Our novel findings provide a clue to unraveling the regulatory mechanism of nephrocystin in IFT machinery.
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ABSTRACT: Cilia are conserved, microtubule-based cell surface projections that emanate from basal bodies, membrane-docked centrioles. The beating of motile cilia and flagella enables cells to swim and epithelia to displace fluids. In contrast, most primary cilia do not beat but instead detect environmental or intercellular stimuli. Inborn defects in both kinds of cilia cause human ciliopathies, diseases with diverse manifestations such as heterotaxia and kidney cysts. These diseases are caused by defects in ciliogenesis or ciliary function. The signaling functions of cilia require regulation of ciliary composition, which depends on the control of protein traffic into and out of cilia.The Journal of Cell Biology 06/2012; 197(6):697-709. · 10.26 Impact Factor
Article: Drosophila chibby is required for basal body formation and ciliogenesis but not for Wg signaling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Centriole-to-basal body conversion, a complex process essential for ciliogenesis, involves the progressive addition of specific proteins to centrioles. CHIBBY (CBY) is a coiled-coil domain protein first described as interacting with β-catenin and involved in Wg-Int (WNT) signaling. We found that, in Drosophila melanogaster, CBY was exclusively expressed in cells that require functional basal bodies, i.e., sensory neurons and male germ cells. CBY was associated with the basal body transition zone (TZ) in these two cell types. Inactivation of cby led to defects in sensory transduction and in spermatogenesis. Loss of CBY resulted in altered ciliary trafficking into neuronal cilia, irregular deposition of proteins on spermatocyte basal bodies, and, consequently, distorted axonemal assembly. Importantly, cby(1/1) flies did not show Wingless signaling defects. Hence, CBY is essential for normal basal body structure and function in Drosophila, potentially through effects on the TZ. The function of CBY in WNT signaling in vertebrates has either been acquired during vertebrate evolution or lost in Drosophila.The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2012; 197(2):313-25. · 10.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ciliopathies are an apparently disparate group of human diseases that all result from defects in the formation and/or function of cilia. They include disorders such as Meckel-Grüber syndrome (MKS), Joubert syndrome (JBTS), Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Alström syndrome (ALS). Reflecting the manifold requirements for cilia in signalling, sensation and motility, different ciliopathies exhibit common elements. The mouse has been used widely as a model organism for the study of ciliopathies. Although many mutant alleles have proved lethal, continued investigations have led to the development of better models. Here, we review current mouse models of a core set of ciliopathies, their utility and future prospects.Disease Models and Mechanisms 05/2012; 5(3):299-312. · 4.94 Impact Factor