Optimizing the use of sapropterin (BH4) in the management of phenylketonuria
ABSTRACT Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, leading to deficient conversion of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine and accumulation of toxic levels of Phe. A Phe-restricted diet is essential to reduce blood Phe levels and prevent long-term neurological impairment and other adverse sequelae. This diet is commenced within the first few weeks of life and current recommendations favor lifelong diet therapy. The observation of clinically significant reductions in blood Phe levels in a subset of patients with PKU following oral administration of 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin dihydrochloride (BH(4)), a cofactor of PAH, raises the prospect of oral pharmacotherapy for PKU. An orally active formulation of BH(4) (sapropterin dihydrochloride; Kuvan is now commercially available. Clinical studies suggest that treatment with sapropterin provides better Phe control and increases dietary Phe tolerance, allowing significant relaxation, or even discontinuation, of dietary Phe restriction. Firstly, patients who may respond to this treatment need to be identified. We propose an initial 48-h loading test, followed by a 1-4-week trial of sapropterin and subsequent adjustment of the sapropterin dosage and dietary Phe intake to optimize blood Phe control. Overall, sapropterin represents a major advance in the management of PKU.
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ABSTRACT: Phenylketonuria (PKU) was the first inherited metabolic disease in which dietary treatment was found to prevent the disease's clinical features. Treatment of phenylketonuria remains difficult due to progressive decrease in adherence to diet and the presence of neurocognitive defects despite therapy. This review aims to summarize the current literature on new treatment strategies. Additions to treatment include new, more palatable foods based on glycomacropeptide that contains very limited amount of aromatic amino acids, the administration of large neutral amino acids to prevent phenylalanine entry into the brain or tetrahydropterina cofactor capable of increasing residual activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Moreover, human trials have recently been performed with subcutaneous administration of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and further efforts are underway to develop an oral therapy containing phenylanine ammonia-lyase. Gene therapy also seems to be a promising approach in the near future.12/2014; 4(4):1007-1017. DOI:10.3390/metabo4041007
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ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of 6R-Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) responsive phenylketonuria (PKU) in 53 cases of patients with various classification of hyperphenylalaninemia and PKU Excluding the BH4 deficient type referring to children's medical center in Iran (phenylalanine 360–2420 μmol/L), the single dose of 20 mg/kg (Kuvan®) and duration of 24 h was used.03/2015; 2. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgmr.2015.01.001
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ABSTRACT: Neonatal loading studies with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) are used to detect hyperphenylalaninemia due to BH4 deficiency by evaluating decreases in blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations post BH4 load. BH4 responsiveness in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH)-deficient patients introduced a new diagnostic aspect for this test. In older children, a broad spectrum of different levels of responsiveness has been described. The primary objective of this study was to develop a pharmacodynamic model to improve the description of individual sensitivity to BH4 in the neonatal period. Secondary objectives were to evaluate BH4 responsiveness in a large number of PAH-deficient patients from a neonatal screening program and in patients with various confirmed BH4 deficiencies from the BIODEF database. Descriptive statistics in patients with PAH deficiency with 0-24-h data available showed that 129 of 340 patients (37.9%) had a >30% decrease in Phe levels post load. Patients with dihydropteridine reductase deficiency (n=53) could not be differentiated from BH4-responsive patients with PAH deficiency. The pharmacologic turnover model, "stimulation of loss" of Phe following BH4 load, fitted the data best. Using the model, 193 of 194 (99.5%) patients with a proven BH4 synthesis deficiency or recycling defect were classified as BH4 sensitive. Among patients with PAH deficiency, 216 of 375 (57.6%) patients showed sensitivity to BH4, albeit with a pronounced variability; PAH-deficient patients with blood Phe <1200μmol/L at time 0 showed higher sensitivity than patients with blood Phe levels >1200μmol/L. External validation showed good correlation between the present approach, using 0-24-h blood Phe data, and the published 48-h prognostic test. Pharmacodynamic modeling of Phe levels following a BH4 loading test is sufficiently powerful to detect a wide range of responsiveness, interpretable as a measure of sensitivity to BH4. However, the clinical relevance of small responses needs to be evaluated by further studies of their relationship to long-term response to BH4 treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2015.01.013 · 2.83 Impact Factor