Assessment of the sensitization potential of persulfate salts used for bleaching hair.
ABSTRACT Persulfate salts have been associated with both allergic contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma. Because there is currently no experimental data available on the sensitizing properties of persulfate salts (ammonium, sodium, and potassium persulfates), we determined their dermal sensitizing capacity, using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA).
For three consecutive days, BALB/c mice were dermally treated with ammonium, sodium, or potassium persulfate or with the vehicle alone (dimethyl sulfoxide) on each ear (2 x 25 microl). On D6, mice were injected intravenously with [(3)H]-methyl thymidine. The draining auricular lymph nodes were removed, and the incorporation of [(3)H]-methyl thymidine was compared with that of vehicle-treated control mice. A stimulation index (SI) relative to the vehicle-treated control value was derived. The sensitizing potency of the chemicals tested was determined by estimating the concentration of chemical required to induce a SI of 3 (EC3).
All three chemicals provoked positive responses in the LLNA, with dose-dependent increases in proliferation. Maximal SIs recorded were 6.8 +/- 1.8, 6.5 +/- 1.2, and 5 +/- 1.0 at 5% for ammonium, sodium or potassium persulfate, respectively. The EC3 values were 1.9%, 0.9%, and 2.4% for ammonium, sodium, and potassium persulfates, respectively.
All three persulfate salts need to be considered strong-to-moderate sensitizers according to the murine LLNA.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ammonium and potassium persulfates may induce a variety of cutaneous and respiratory diseases. The precise underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear. To describe a hairdresser, who developed contact dermatitis, rhinoconjuntivitis, and bronchial asthma of delayed onset after occupational exposure to hair bleaches containing persulfate salts and to provide evidence for a common T-cell mediated mechanism responsible for the clinical manifestations. We performed skin testing, routine histologic and immunohistochemical examination of the skin reaction after prick testing, lymphocyte proliferation analysis, nasal challenge test, and pulmonary function testing. The causative role of bleaching powder and ammonium persulfate was demonstrated by case history, skin tests, and a nasal challenge test. Patch tests produced a delayed cutaneous reaction to ammonium persulfate confirming contact sensitization. Prick tests with bleaching powder and ammonium persulfate were negative at 15 minutes but revealed a late skin reaction with a papule at the prick sites after 24 hours. Histologic examination of this late reaction demonstrated a perivascular infiltration comprising predominantly T lymphocytes. Further, a significant proliferation of T cells to bleaching powder was reproducibly found by a lymphocyte proliferation analysis. Nasal challenge test with bleaching powder showed a significant reduction of air flow after 24 hours. Our findings suggest that immunologic mechanism with direct involvement of T cells may not only play an important role in the pathogenesis of the cutaneous but also in the respiratory and rhinoconjunctival reactions.Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 05/1999; 82(4):401-4. · 3.45 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Persulfate are inorganic salts used as oxidizing agents in hair bleaches and hair-coloring preparations. Persulfates are contained in hair lighteners at concentrations up to 60%, in bleaches and lighteners at up to 22% and 16%, respectively, and in off-the-scalp products used to highlight hair strands at up to 25%. They are used in professional product bleaches and lighteners at similar concentrations. Much of the available safety test data are for Ammonium Persulfate, but these data are considered applicable to the other salts as well. Acute dermal, oral, and inhalation toxicity studies are available, but only the latter are remarkable, with gross lesions observed in the lungs, liver, stomach, and spleen. In short-term and subchronic feeding studies the results were mixed; some studies found no evidence of toxicity and others found local damage to the mucous membrane in the gastrointestinal tract, but no other systemic effects. Short-term inhalation toxicity was observed when rats were exposed to aerosolized Ammonium Persulfate at concentrations of 4 mg/m3 and greater. Ammonium Persulfate (as a moistened powder) was not an irritant to intact rabbit skin, but was sensitizing (in a saline solution) to the guinea pig. It was slightly irritating to rabbit eyes. Ammonium Persulfate was negative in the Ames test and the chromosomal aberration test. No significant evidence of tumor promotion or carcinogenicity was observed in studies of rats receiving topical applications of Ammonium Persulfate. The persulfates were reported to cause both delayed-type and immediate skin reactions, including irritant dermatitis, allergic eczematous dermatitis, localized contact urticaria, generalized urticaria, rhinitis, asthma, and syncope. The most common causes of allergic dermatitis in hairdressers are the active ingredients in hair dyes, and Ammonium Persulfate has been identified as a frequent allergen. A sensitization study that also examined the incidence of urticarial reactions was performed with 17.5% Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Persulfate under occlusive patches. At this concentration and exposure conditions, a mixture of these Persulfates was not sensitizing, and application of Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Persulfate did not result in an urticarial reaction. In normal use (i.e., not occluded and rinsed off), it was expected that a concentration greater than 17.5% would also be safe. Given the clinical reports of urticarial reactions, however, manufacturers and formulators should be aware of the potential for urticarial reactions at concentrations of Persulfates greater than 17.5%. Based on the available data, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Persulfate are safe as used as oxidizing agents in hair colorants and lighteners designed for brief discontinuous use followed by thorough rinsing from the hair and skin.International Journal of Toxicology 02/2001; 20 Suppl 3:7-21. · 1.35 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Persulfate salts may cause contact urticaria, allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, rhinitis and asthma. The mechanism of the immediate reactions has been unclear. Positive prick test, skin application and nasal and bronchial provocations identify immediate allergy. There is only 1 previous report of specific binding of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to ammonium persulfate demonstrated by radioallergosorbent test (RAST). In the present study, fresh 2% ammonium and potassium persulfate solutions were used for prick testing. Patients with positive prick tests were further evaluated with open skin application, immunospot and RAST. Prick testing with persulfate salts was performed in a total of 138 patients. 7 patients had a positive reaction to at least 1 persulfate salt. 6 of the patients had had skin symptoms, urticaria, eczema or angioedema, because of contact with hair bleaches. Open application on healthy skin was performed in 4 patients, and 3 out of them had urticarial reactions. The sera of 5 patients were investigated with immunospot and RAST. On immunospot, specific binding of IgE to human serum albumin (HSA)-conjugated ammonium and potassium persulfate was found in 2 patients. 1 immunospot-positive patient also had a positive RAST to ammonium persulfate-HSA conjugate. The mechanism of immediate hypersensitivity to persulfates thus seems to be IgE-mediated at least in some patients.Contact Dermatitis 08/2003; 49(1):22-5. · 2.93 Impact Factor
Contact Dermatitis 2009: 60: 85–90
Printed in Singapore. All rights reserved
#2009 The Authors
Journal compilation#2009 Blackwell Munksgaard
Assessment of the sensitization potential of
persulfate salts used for bleaching hair
MARI´A-JESU´S CRUZ1,2,*, VANESSA DE VOOGHT3,*, XAVIER MUN˜OZ1,2, PETER H. M. HOET3, FERRAN MORELL1,2,
BENOIT NEMERY3AND J. A. J. VANOIRBEEK3
1CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES),2Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, 08035
Barcelona, Spain, and3Unit of Lung Toxicology (Laboratory of Pneumology), K.U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
Background: Persulfate salts have been associated with both allergic contact dermatitis and bronchial
asthma. Because there is currently no experimental data available on the sensitizing properties of
persulfate salts (ammonium, sodium, and potassium persulfates), we determined their dermal sensi-
tizing capacity, using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA).
Material and Methods: For three consecutive days, BALB/c mice were dermally treated with ammo-
nium, sodium, or potassium persulfate or with the vehicle alone (dimethyl sulfoxide) on each ear
(2 ? 25 ml). On D6, mice were injected intravenously with [3H]-methyl thymidine. The draining
auricular lymph nodes were removed, and the incorporation of [3H]-methyl thymidine was compared
with that of vehicle-treated control mice. A stimulation index (SI) relative to the vehicle-treated
control value was derived. The sensitizing potency of the chemicals tested was determined by esti-
mating the concentration of chemical required to induce a SI of 3 (EC3).
Results: All three chemicals provoked positive responses in the LLNA, with dose-dependent
increases in proliferation. Maximal SIs recorded were 6.8 ? 1.8, 6.5 ? 1.2, and 5 ? 1.0 at 5% for
ammonium, sodium or potassium persulfate, respectively. The EC3 values were 1.9%, 0.9%, and
2.4% for ammonium, sodium, and potassium persulfates, respectively.
Conclusions: All three persulfate salts need to be considered strong-to-moderate sensitizers according
to the murine LLNA.
Key words: ammonium persulfate; BALB/c mice; local lymph node assay; potassium persulfate;
sodium persulfate. # Blackwell Munksgaard, 2009.
Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts.
Accepted for publication 22 July 2008
Persulfate salts are reactive low-molecular-weight
chemical compounds widely used in different
manufacturing processes in the chemical, pharma-
ceutical, metallurgic, textile, photographic, food,
and, particularly cosmetic industries (1). These
salts may be present in hair lightening products
at concentrations up to 60% (2).
Persulfates are capable of causing immunolog-
ical sensitization and subsequent allergic disease,
such as contact dermatitis (3–5) and bronchial
asthma (6–9). Currently, there is a lack of infor-
mation about the skin sensitizing properties of
persulfates. Only the sensitization potential of
ammonium persulfate has been determined in
a commercial setting (10). Ammonium persulfate
was considered a sensitizer according to the
guinea-pig maximization test, an Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD)-approved predictive test using guinea-
pigs for establishing dermal sensitization potential
(guideline no. 406).
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a vali-
dated and accepted hazard identification method
that is currently widely used as a predictive test
for the identification of dermal sensitizers. The
*These authors equally contributed to this work.
method is based on the immunological events that
occur during the induction phase of contact sen-
sitization. Contact allergens are identified as
a function of lymphocyte proliferative responses
provoked in draining lymph nodes following
(11, 12), with the degree of lymphocyte prolifera-
tion correlating closely with the skin sensitizing
potency of the chemical (13). One of the main
advantages of this technique is that it permits
accurate measurement of relative potency, thus
allowing an effective risk assessment and risk
management strategy. Furthermore, using the
LLNA, it is possible to distinguish prevalence
(overall frequency of contact dermatitis caused
by a chemical) from potency (determination of
the allergic potential of a chemical, applying a cer-
tain concentration on the skin). This is important
because a relatively high prevalence is not neces-
sarily attributable to a high potency (14).
In a first step to try to identify the mechanisms
involved in the sensitization to persulfate salts, we
have compared, using the murine LLNA, the
sensitization potential of three persulfate salts:
ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, and
potassium persulfate. To our knowledge, these
three salts have not been studied using the LLNA.
Materials and Methods
Male BALB/c mice (* 20 g, 6 weeks old) were
obtained from Harlan (Horst, the Netherlands).
The mice were housed in a conventional animal
house with 12:12-hr dark–light cycles. They
received lightly acidified water and pelleted food
(Trouw Nutrition, Ghent, Belgium) ad libitum. All
experimental procedures were approved by the
local Ethical Committee for Animal Experiments.
Ammonium persulfate [(NH4)2S2O8], sodium per-
sulfate (Na2S2O8), and potassium persulfate
(K2S2O8) (Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, St Louis,
MO, USA) were used. Dosing solutions (0.1%,
0.5%, 1%, and 5% w/v) were prepared in
dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, vehicle) (Sigma-
Aldrich Corporation). Dosing solutions were pre-
pared freshly for each application.
Local lymph node assay
The LLNA was performed according to a stand-
ard protocol (12). Briefly, the mice (five animals
per test group) received dermal applications of
25 ml of various concentrations of (NH4)2S2O8,
Na2S2O8, or K2S2O8or of the same volume of
vehicle alone on each ear, daily for three consec-
utive days. The area around the exposure site was
monitored for any signs of irritancy. Six days after
the initiation of exposure, the mice were injected
intravenously through the tail vein with (methyl-
3H)-thymidine [3HTdR], 2 Ci/mmol from ICN
Pharmaceuticals (Asse, Belgium) in 250 ml of
(90 mg/kg) and the draining auricular lymph nodes
were excised, pooled for each mouse, and weighed
of lymph node cells (LNC) was prepared, and the
LNC were washed twice.
was measured by b-scintillation counting (Beck-
man LS 5000CE, Irvine, CA, USA) and expressed
as disintegrations per minute (d.p.m.). The SI was
calculated as the ratio of3HTdR incorporation by
lymphocytes from treated animals relative to that
from concurrent vehicle-treated controls.
Data treatment and statistical analysis
The mean value of the d.p.m.s found was calcu-
lated for each experimental group, thus allowing
the derivation of a SI. As threshold level for sig-
nificance a SI value >3 was adopted. An estimate
of the sensitizing potency of the chemicals tested
was determined by calculating an estimated con-
(EC3). The EC3 was derived by linear interpola-
tion of dose–response data as described previously
(15). The EC3 value was calculated by interpolat-
ing between two points on the SI axis, one imme-
SI value of 3. Where the data points lying imme-
diately above and below of 3 have the co-ordinates
(a,b) and (c,d), respectively, then the EC3 value
may be calculated using the following equation:
EC3 ¼ c þ ½ð3 ? dÞ=ðb ? dÞ?ða ? cÞ
The relationship of EC3 value to relative
potency is inverse, hence the lower the EC3 value,
the higher the potency.
Data is shown as means and SD. All data were
analysed using parametric analysis of variance
with a Dunnett’s post hoc test (GRAPHPAD PRISM
4.01 GRAPHPAD Software Inc., San Diego,
CA, USA). A level of P < 0.05 (two tailed) was
considered to be significant.
The skin sensitizing potential of three persulfate
salts was determined using the LLNA, a method
86CRUZ ET AL.
Contact Dermatitis 2009: 60: 85–90
in which the activity is measured as a function of
induced proliferative responses in the auricular
lymph nodes draining the site of topical applica-
tion. In the LLNA, chemicals are defined as bio-
logically relevant dermal sensitizers, when the test
concentrations yield at least a threefold increase in
SI compared with vehicle-treated controls (14).
This is called the EC3. Both the LNW and the
LNC count, measured by3HTdR incorporation
and presented in d.p.m., are presented.
The results of the LLNA for the persulfate salts
are presented in Tables 1 and 2 and Fig. 1.
Exposure to (NH4)2S2O8resulted in a maximal
mean SI of 6.8 ? 1.8 at the highest concentration
tested (5%) (Fig. 1a). Applying 5% solution of
(NH4)2S2O8caused the LNW to increase 2.5 times
(Table 1) and a 6.5-fold increase in total LNC
number (Table 2) was found when compared with
the DMSO control.From thecalculated SIvalues,
the estimated EC3 of (NH4)2S2O8is 1.9%.
After sensitization with Na2S2O8, the maximal
SI of 6.4 ? 1.2 at the highest concentration tested
(5%) was calculated (Fig. 1b), while a threefold
increase in the LNW was measured (Table 1)
and the LNC numbers increased almost 6.5-fold
(Table 2). This resulted in an estimated EC3 of
0.9% for Na2S2O8.
A slightly lower value was obtained after sensi-
tization with K2S2O8, which yielded a maximal
mean SI of 5.0 ? 1.0 for the group exposed to
the highest concentration (5%) (Fig. 1c). The
LNW increased 2.8-fold, while the total LNC
number was five times increased. This resulted in
an estimated EC3 of 2.4% for K2S2O8.
The primary purpose of our study was to inves-
tigate the potential of three persulfate salts
[(NH4)2S2O8, Na2S2O8, or K2S2O8] to cause aller-
gic contact dermatitis. Thisis necessary for further
studying the potential of these salts to induce pul-
monary effects and, moreover, to investigate the
relation between dermal sensitization and res-
piratory responses (16–19). Kimber et al. (20)
proposed a classification to categorize contact
allergens according to potency, based on their
EC3 value. In this approach, four categories are
used. 1, extreme skin sensitizers are defined as
agents with an EC3 value less than 0.1%; 2, strong
sensitizers have an EC3 value between 0.1% and
1%; 3, moderate sensitizers have an EC3 value
between 1% and 10%; and 4, weak sensitizers
have an EC3 value above 10%. In this classifica-
tion, (NH4)2S2O8 (EC3 ¼ 1.9%) and K2S2O8
(EC3 ¼ 2.4%) are classified as moderate sensi-
tizers and Na2S2O8(EC3 ¼ 0.9%) is classified as
a strong sensitizer.
The information on the sensitizing properties of
persulfates is limited. One study describes the
safety assessment of ammonium, potassium, and
sodium persulfate (2). In that study, only ammo-
nium persulfate was tested for its dermal sensitiz-
ing potential, using the Magnusson and Kligman
guinea-pig maximization test (21), which is an
OECD-approved guideline (no. 406, 1992) for
Table 1. Lymph node weights in response to treatment with
vehicle (DMSO), ammonium persulfate [(NH4)2S2O8], sodium
persulfate (Na2S2O8), and potassium persulfate (K2S2O8)a
2.6 ? 0.9
3.2 ? 0.9
3.5 ? 0.8
4.3 ? 0.9*
6.6 ? 1.4**
3.7 ? 1.1
3.9 ? 1.3
4.8 ? 1.6
6.7 ? 0.9**
11.6 ? 1.8**
3.4 ? 1.7
4.1 ? 0.7
4.5 ? 1.2
7.5 ? 2.2**
9.5 ? 2.3**
DMSO, dimethyl sulphoxide; LNW, lymph node weight.
aIn the murine local lymph node assay, mice were dermally
sensitized, on both ears, on D1, D2, and D3. On D6, they were
intravenously injected with 20 mCi [methyl-3H]-thymidine
(3HTdR), and 5 hr later, the auricular lymph nodes were
removed, pooled, and weighed (lymph node weight). The two
lymph nodes of each mouse were pooled. Numbers are means
(?SD) of 4–7 mice per group. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 compared
with the DMSO control.
Table 2. Disintegrations per minute (d.p.m.) in the LLNA in response to treatment with vehicle (DMSO), ammonium persulfate
[(NH4)2S2O8], sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8), and potassium persulfate (K2S2O8)a
Concentration (% w/v)(NH4)2S2O8(in DMSO) d.p.m. Na2S2O8(in DMSO) d.p.m.K2S2O8(in DMSO) d.p.m.
1609 ? 681
1424 ? 720
2116 ? 250
2942 ? 475*
10 513 ? 2739**
1556 ? 870
1488 ? 547
2284 ? 357
5596 ? 484**
10 082 ? 1936**
1630 ? 284
1579 ? 240
2130 ? 323
3145 ? 649**
8179 ? 1568**
DMSO, dimethyl sulphoxide; LLNA, local lymph node assay.
aIn the murine LLNA, mice were dermally sensitized, on both ears, on D1, D2, and D3. On D6, they were intravenously injected with
20 mCi [methyl-3H]-thymidine (3HTdR), and 5 hr later, the auricular lymph nodes were removed, pooled, and weighed (lymph node
weight).3HTdR incorporation was measured by b-scintillation counting expressed as d.p.m.. The two lymph nodes of each mouse
were pooled. Numbers are means (?SD) of 4–7 mice per group. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 compared with the DMSO control.
Contact Dermatitis 2009: 60: 85–90
SENSITIZATION POTENTIAL OF PERSULFATE SALTS87
testing dermal sensitization. In that study, all
the guinea-pigs reacted to an intradermal admin-
istration of a 0.1% solution in saline, whereas
80% of the animals reacted to epicutaneous ap-
plication of a 1% solution. According to these
results, (NH4)2S2O8was considered a dermal sen-
sitizer for the guinea-pig (2). Mensing et al. (22)
demonstrated in a rabbit model that exposure to
hair bleach containing persulfates increased air-
way hyper-responsiveness and that ammonium
persulfate stimulated the release of nitric oxide
in guinea-pigs (23).
Murine LLNA is an OECD-accepted method
(OECD guideline no. 429, 2002) to identify con-
tact sensitizers. The argument is that skin expos-
ure to a sufficient amount of a relevant chemical
allergen will induce an immune response of the
quantity and quality necessary to cause systemic
sensitization (24). In this present set-up, we
slightly adjusted the murine LLNA. Instead of
using CBA/Ca mice as described in OECD guide-
line 429, we used BALB/c mice. The purpose of
this study was to investigate the dermal sensitizing
potential of persulfate salts. This study will be
elaborated with a second study in which the
potential of these salts to induce respiratory sen-
sitization and their ability to induce asthma are
described. For studies of these pulmonary effects
induced by a chemical, BALB/c mice are the pre-
ferred mouse strain (16–19).
According to the results obtained, (NH4)2S2O8,
K2S2O8, and Na2S2O8, which are known for their
lung and skin sensitization potential in humans
nium and potassium persulfate can be categorized
as moderate sensitizers, while sodium persulfate
should be regarded as a strong sensitizer.
Differences between the persulfate salts have
also been observed previously in several studies.
Parsons et al. (25) reported that both ammonium
and potassium persulfates caused histamine
release from isolated rat peritoneal mast cells
and from guinea-pig skin in vitro and in vivo. His-
tamine release induced by potassium persulfate
was characterized by degranulation of the mast
cells. However, with ammonium persulfate, alter-
ationsin thegranules were observed butno appar-
ent degranulation occurred. In vitro studies with
slices of guinea-pig skin, potassium persulfate but
not ammonium persulfate, appeared to release
Several studies have already been conducted
to relate LLNA EC3 values with skin sensitiza-
tion based on clinical observations. These stud-
ies show a very close correlation between clinical
observations and estimates of potency based on
EC3 values (26, 27). The LLNA results obtained
in the present study are consistent with the well-
known ability of persulfates to cause sensiti-
zation among exposed human populations.
SI ammonium persulfate
EC3 = 1.9
SI sodium persulfate
EC3 = 0.9
SI potassium persulfate
EC3 = 2.4
Fig. 1. Stimulation index (SI) of ammonium (a), sodium (b),
and potassium (c) persulfate in the murine local lymph node
assay. On D1, D2, and D3, mice were dermally sensitized on
both ears. On D6, they were intravenously injected with
20 mCi [methyl-3H]-thymidine (3HTdR), and 5 hr later, the
auricular lymph nodes were removed, pooled, and weighed.
The SI was calculated as the ratio of3HTdR incorporation
by lymphocytes from treated animals relative to that from
concurrent vehicle-treated controls. (NH4)2S2O8, Na2S2O8,
and K2S2O8persulfates were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide.
The two lymph nodes of each mouse were pooled. Symbols
represent means (?SD) of 4–7 mice per group. *P < 0.05,
**P < 0.01 compared with the DMSO control.
88CRUZ ET AL.
Contact Dermatitis 2009: 60: 85–90
In humans, persulfates were reported to cause
both delayed-type and immediate skin reactions,
including irritant dermatitis, allergic eczematous
generalized urticaria (1, 5). In addition to skin
diseases, respiratory disorders have been fre-
quently reported among hairdressers and chem-
ical workers exposed to persulfates (6–9).
Persulfate salts are frequently implicated agents
in the origin of occupational asthma that may
represent up to 4% of all occupational asthma
In conclusion, we provided here a systematic
comparative analysis of three persulfate salts of
occupational significance using the LLNA. The
study shows that all three persulfate salts, ammo-
nium, sodium, and potassium, with a potential
for sensitization in humans, were positive in the
according to EC3 values showed a (limited) dis-
tinction between ammonium and potassium per-
sulfates, which are moderate sensitizers, and
sodium persulfate, which is a strong sensitizer.
These data will be of value in developing further
accurate risk assessments.
The project was supported by a grant of the Inter-
universitary Attraction Pole Program, Belgian State,
Belgian Science Policy P6/35, from the ‘Fonds voor
Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Vlaanderen’ (FWO),
FWO G.0547.08, from the Fundacio ´ Catalana de
Pneumologia, from the Societat Catalana de Pneumo-
logı´a, and from PIS PI080730 J. A. J. V. is a post-
doctoral fellow of the FWO.
1. Yawalkar N, Helbling A, Pichler C E et al. T cell involve-
ment in persulphate triggered occupational contact dermati-
tis and asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999: 82:
2. Pang S, Fiume M Z. Final report on the safety assessment of
ammonium, potassium and sodium persulfate. Int J Toxicol
2001: 20 (Suppl. 3): 7–21.
3. Aalto-Korte K, Makinen-Kiljunen S. Specific immunoglo-
bulin E in patientswithimmediate persulfate hypersensitivity.
Contact Dermatitis 2003: 49: 22–25.
4. Uter W, Lessman H, Geiger J, Schnuch A.Contact allergy to
ingredients of hair cosmetics in female hairdressers and cli-
ents – an 8 year analysis of IVDK data. Contact Dermatitis
2003: 49: 236–240.
titis in hairdressers, 10 years later: patch-test results in 300
hairdressers (1994 to 2003) and comparison with previous
study. Dermatitis 2005: 16: 28–31.
6. Mun ˜ ozX,CruzMJ,OrriolsR,BravoC,EspugaM,MorellF.
Occupational asthma due to persulfate salts. Chest 2003: 123:
7. Blainey A D, Ollier S, Cundell D, Smith R E, Davies R J.
Occupational asthma in a hairdressing salon. Thorax 1986:
Paggiaro P L. Asthma in hairdressers: a report of 5 cases.
Med Lav 1999: 90: 776–785.
9. Moscato G, Pignatti P, Yacoub M R, Romano C, Spezia S,
Perfetti L. Occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis in
hairdressers. Chest 2005: 128: 3590–3598.
10. BGChemie. (Submission of data by CTFA). Nr, 4. Ammo-
nium Persulfat. (Translated). Washington, DC, Director,
Cosmetic Ingredient Review, 1994.
11. Kimber I, Mitchell J, Griffin A. Development of a murine
local lymph node assay for the determination of sensitizing
potential. Food Chem Toxicol 1986: 24: 585–586.
12. Kimber I, Weisenberger C. A murine local lymph node assay
for the identification of contact allergens. Assay develop-
ment and results of an initial validation study. Arch Toxicol
1989: 63: 274–282.
13. Kimber I, Dearman R. Investigation of lymph node cell
proliferation as a possible immunological correlate of
contact sensitizing potential. Food Chem Toxicol 1991: 29:
14. Kimber I, Dearman R J, Basketer D A, Ryan C A,
Gerberick G F. The local lymph node assay: past, present
and future. Contact Dermatitis 2002: 47: 315–318.
15. Basketter D A, Lea L J, Dickens A, Briggs D, Pate I,
to the derivation of EC3 values from local lymph node assay
dose responses. J Appl Toxicol 1999: 19: 261–266.
16. Vanoirbeek J A, Tarkowski M, Ceuppens J L, Verbeken E K,
Nemery B, Hoet P H. Respiratory response to toluene dii-
socyanate depends on prior frequency and concentration of
dermal sensitization in mice. Toxicol Sci 2004: 80: 310–321.
Nemery B, Hoet P H. Validation of a mouse model of chem-
sensitizer, and dinitrochlorobenzene, a dermal sensitizer.
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006: 117: 1090–1097.
18. VanoirbeekJ A,DeVooghtV,Vanhooren H M,Nawrot T S,
Nemery B, Hoet P H. How long do the systemic and ven-
tilatory responses to toluene diisocyanate persist in der-
mally sensitized mice? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008: 121:
Mercier C M, Ceuppens J, Nemery B, Hoet P H. Immunolog-
ical determinants of ventilatory changes induced in mice by
dermal sensitization and respiratory challenge with toluene dii-
socyanate. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007: 292:
20. Kimber I, Basketter D A, Butler M et al. Classification of
contact allergens according to potency: proposals. Food
Chem Toxicol 2003: 41: 1799–1809.
21. Magnusson B, Kligman A M. The identification of contact
allergens by animal assay: The guinea pig maximization test.
J Invest Dermatol 1969: 52: 268–276.
22. Mensing T, Marek W, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Baur X. Acute
exposure to hair bleach causes airway hyperresponsiveness
in a rabbit model. Eur Respir J 1998: 12: 1371–1374.
23. Mensing T, Marek W, Baur X. The influence of ammonium
persulfate on guinea pig tracheal muscle tone: release of
nitric oxide. Pharmacol Toxicol 1996: 78: 336–340.
24. Holsapple M P, Jones D, Kawabata T T, Kimber I, Sarlo K,
Selgrade M K, Shah J, Woolhiser M R. Assessing the poten-
tial to induce respiratory hypersensitivity. Toxicol Sci 2006:
25. Parsons J F, Goodwin B F J, Safford R J. Studies on the
action of histamine release by persulfates. Food Cosmet
Toxicol 1979: 17: 129–135.
26. Basketter D A, Balikie L, Dearman R J et al. Use of the
local lymph node assay for the estimation of relative
Contact Dermatitis 2009: 60: 85–90
SENSITIZATION POTENTIAL OF PERSULFATE SALTS 89
contact allergenic potency. Contact Dermatitis 2000: 42:
27. Gerberick G F, Robinson M K, Ryan C A, Dearman R J,
Kinber I, Basketter D A, Wright Z, Marks J G. Contact
allergenic potency: correlation of human and local lymph
node assay data. Am J Contact Dermat 2001: 12: 156–161.
28. Kopferschmitt-Kubler M C, Ameille J, Popin E et al. Occu-
pational asthma in France: a 1-yr report of the Observatoire
National des Asthmes Professionnels project. Eur Respir J
2002: 19: 84–89.
Dr Marı´a-Jesu´s Cruz
Servei de Pneumologia
Hospital Vall d’Hebron
Pg. Vall d’Hebron 119
Tel: þ34 93 4894048
Fax: þ34 93 4894049
90 CRUZ ET AL.
Contact Dermatitis 2009: 60: 85–90