Minimally invasive orthognathic surgery.
ABSTRACT Minimally invasive surgery is defined as the discipline in which operative procedures are performed in novel ways to diminish the sequelae of standard surgical dissections. The goals of minimally invasive surgery are to reduce tissue trauma and to minimize bleeding, edema, and injury, thereby improving the rate and quality of healing. In orthognathic surgery, there are two minimally invasive techniques that can be used separately or in combination: (1) endoscopic exposure and (2) distraction osteogenesis. This article describes the historical developments of the fields of orthognathic surgery and minimally invasive surgery, as well as the integration of the two disciplines. Indications, techniques, and the most current outcome data for specific minimally invasive orthognathic surgical procedures are presented.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this project was to test a surgical navigation tool designed to help execute a surgical treatment plan. It consists of an electromagnetically tracked pencil that is used to mark bone intraoperatively. The device was tested on a precision block, an ex vivo pig mandible and during performance of six endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomies on pig cadavers. The difference between actual pencil position and that displayed by the computer was measured three times each at ten 2mm holes on the block (n=30 observations) and on the ex vivo mandible (n=11 measurements). Errors between planned and actual osteotomy locations for the cadaver procedures were measured. The mean distance between known and displayed locations was 1.55 ± 0.72 mm on the precision block and 2.10 ± 0.88 mm on the pig mandible. The error measured marking the same point on the block multiple (n=5) times was 0.58 ± 0.37 mm. The mean error on the simulated osteotomies was 2.35 ± 1.35 mm. Osteomark was simple to use and permitted localisation of holes and osteotomies with acceptable accuracy. In the future, the device and algorithms will be revised to further decrease error and the system will be tested on live animals.International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 11/2011; 41(2):265-70. · 1.52 Impact Factor