Do elderly edentulous patients with a history of periodontitis harbor periodontal pathogens?: Periodontal pathogens in elderly subjects
ABSTRACT The presence of periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity may impact implant survival. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Eikenella corrodens and Parvimonas micra in a specific elderly population with a history of periodontitis who have never worn dentures.
Thirty dentate subjects (mean age 61.7+/-7.05 years) and 30 edentulous subjects (mean age 65.8+/-8.05 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Microbiological samples of cheek mucosa and the dorsum of the tongue were taken from all subjects. In addition, sulcus samples were taken from the dentate group. All samples were analysed using a bacterial DNA-specific polymerase chain reaction.
All the pathogens studied were detected in dentate and edentulous subjects. When cheek and tongue samples were combined, C. rectus, A. actinomycetemcomitans and E. corrodens presented with a similar prevalence in both groups, whereas the other species were more prevalent specifically in the dentate group (P<0.05). In dentate subjects, P. intermedia and T. denticola were present in higher frequencies in the cheek mucosa (26.67% and 66.67%, respectively), whereas P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were more prevalent in the tongue samples (26.67% and 56.67%, respectively).
Periodontal pathogens may persist in the oral cavity of edentulous subjects who have had periodontal disease, even 1 year after the extraction of all teeth and in the absence of other hard surfaces in the mouth.
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ABSTRACT: To elucidate the first colonizers within in vivo dental biofilm and to establish potential population shifts that occur during the early phases of biofilm formation. A 'checkerboard' DNA-DNA hybridization assay was employed to identify 40 different bacterial strains. Dental biofilm samples were collected from 15 healthy subjects, 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after tooth cleaning and the composition of these samples was compared with that of whole saliva collected from the same individuals. The bacterial distribution in biofilm samples was distinct from that in saliva, confirming the selectivity of the adhesion process. In the very early stages, the predominant tooth colonizers were found to be Actinomyces species. The relative proportion of streptococci, in particular Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis, increased at the expense of Actinomyces species between 2 and 6 h while the absolute level of Actinomyces remained unaltered. Periodontal pathogens such as Tannerella forsythensis(Bacteroides forsythus), Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola as well as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were present in extremely low levels at all the examined time intervals in this healthy group of subjects. The data provide a detailed insight into the bacterial population shifts occurring within the first few hours of biofilm formation and show that the early colonizers of the tooth surface predominantly consist of beneficial micro-organisms. The early colonizers of dental plaque are of great importance in the succession stages of biofilm formation and its overall effect on the oral health of the host.Journal of Applied Microbiology 02/2004; 97(6):1311-8. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Periodontitis and peri-implantitis are linked to the presence of several key pathogens. The treatment of these infectious processes therefore involves the reduction/eradication of bacteria associated with periodontitis. This prospective, split-mouth, single-blind study followed the colonization of 'pristine' sulci created in 42 partially edentulous patients during implant surgery (e.g. abutment connection). The hypothesis was that the composition of the maturing subgingival plaque in these 'fresh' peri-implant pockets would soon (within 2 weeks) be comparable to the subgingival microbiota of teeth with similar clinical parameters (reference sites), including the presence of bacteria associated with periodontitis. Per patient, four subgingival plaque samples were taken from shallow and medium pockets around implants (test sites), and teeth within the same quadrant (undisturbed microbiota as control sites), 1, 2, 4, 13, 26 and 78 weeks after abutment connection, respectively. The samples were analysed by either checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization, or cultural techniques, or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for intra-subject comparisons (teeth vs. implant, for comparable probing depths). Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and real-time PCR revealed a complex microbiota (including several pathogenic species) in the peri-implant pockets within 2 weeks after abutment connection. After 7 days, the detection frequency for most species (including the bacteria associated with periodontitis) was already nearly identical in samples from the fresh peri-implant pockets (5% and 20% of the microbiota belonging to red and orange complex, respectively) when compared with samples from the reference teeth. Afterwards (e.g. between weeks 2 and 13), the number of bacteria in peri-implant pockets only slightly increased (+/-0.1 log value), with minor changes in the relative proportions of bacteria associated with periodontitis (8% and 33% of the microbiota belonging to red and orange complex, respectively). Although small differences were seen between teeth and implants at week 2 with cultural techniques, a striking similarity in subgingival microbiota was found with this technique from month 3 on, with nearly identical detection frequencies for bacteria associated with periodontitis for both abutment types. This study indicates that the initial colonization of peri-implant pockets with bacteria associated with periodontitis occurs within 2 weeks.Clinical Oral Implants Research 03/2006; 17(1):25-37. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiota and surface of failed titanium dental implants from 4 manufacturers. Twelve mobile dental implants were retrieved from 10 smokers after 3 to 10 years of functional loading. Before implant removal, microbial samples were taken and evaluated using polymerase chain reaction. After implant removal, analyses of the failed implant surfaces were performed using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometer x-ray. Periodontal pathogens such as Aggregactibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola were detected in all implants in different proportions. Surface analysis showed varying degrees of surface roughness between the samples and the presence of proteinaceous material, appearing mainly as dark stains. Foreign carbon, oxygen, sodium, calcium, aluminum, and silicon elements were also found. Although no material-related causes of implant failure were detected, several periodontal pathogens were identified independently of the surface topography or manufacturer.Journal of Oral Implantology 02/2007; 33(4):232-8. · 1.15 Impact Factor