To determine if breastfeeding and its duration are associated with a reduced risk of obesity among Kuwaiti preschool children.
The sample consisted of 2,291 (1,092 males and 1,199 females) preschool children (3-6 years of age) and their mothers. The data were collected from September 2003 to June 2004. Height and weight measurements were used for defining weight status while other data were collected by questionnaire.
There was no significant association of breastfeeding or its duration with either overweight or obesity among preschool children after adjusting for effects of the confounders. The child's gender, age and birth weight were the significant factors influencing current weight. Girls were at 32% higher risk of becoming obese than boys. Children aged 4-5 years were at nearly 3 times higher risk of overweight and obesity than children of less than 4 years. Children with higher birth weight (>or=4 kg) had double the risk of obesity than those of normal birth weight (>or=2.5 to <4.0 kg). Maternal obesity was a strong predictor of obesity in the children. A child with an obese mother had nearly 2 times higher risk of being overweight (BMI between the 85th the 95th percentiles) and 3 times of being obese (BMI >or=95th percentile) compared to a child born to a mother with a normal body weight.
Breastfeeding and its duration are not associated with obesity status. However, there is a positive association between child and maternal obesity.
"Water, herbal water 6e9 Fruits Canned wheat & rice Weaning foods -Primi pregnancy -Mother's health status -Child refusal to feed (not satisfied) -Mother's work Egypt  4e6 Water, sweetened water, flavored tea 6e9 Rice, tea and biscuit -New pregnancy -Child old enough -Scanty milk -Contraceptive use -High income & high education KSA  4e6 4 e6 Rice -Insufficiency or non-availability of breast milk -Child reaching suitable age -Mother not having enough milk -Pregnancy of mother Kuwait    3e5 Water, herbs, fruit juices 4e<6 Cereal products (biscuit, baby cereals) -Insufficiency of mother's milk -Lack of professional support to breastfeeding mothers during the early days after delivery. -Mother's desire -Infant refusal of the breast -Onset of a new pregnancy -The use of contraceptive pills Lebanon   <4 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suboptimal feeding patterns during the first two years of life are key determinants of malnutrition in children and constitute an important predictor of health in later years. Early-childhood nutritional factors, stunting, and obesity have been highlighted as prominent core underlying factors of Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) development whereas the improvement of complementary feeding practices has been cited as one of the most effective preventive strategies for reducing malnutrition and adult NCDs. In the MENA region NCD prevalence shows very high rates and the limited available studies show that current practices fall behind global recommendations. Common to all countries of this region are practices of mixed breast and bottle-feeding as early as the first month, as well as the premature introduction of complementary foods. Early introduction of non-milk fluids, such as sweetened water and herbal teas, has been described as a common practice in the region and the premature introduction of complementary foods has been reported in as high as 80% of infants in several of the countries. Thus, enhancing infant/young child health can significantly reduce morbidities and mortalities, as well as adult-onset diseases, ultimately decreasing the region's overall burden of disease.
"In Kuwait, it was reported that neither breastfeeding nor duration of breastfeeding was associated with childhood obesity at 3–6 years when potential confounders were controlled for. However, introduction of solid foods to the infants before two months was significantly associated with obesity, as children received solid foods before 2 months of age were two times at risk of being overweight than those who received solid foods between 4 and 6 months (odd ratio 2.39, P < 0.01) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper was to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among various age groups as well as discuss the possible factors that associated with obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A systematic review of published papers between 1990 and 2011 was carried out. Obesity reached an alarming level in all age groups of the EMR countries. The prevalence of overweight among preschool children(<5 years) ranged from 1.9% to 21.9%, while the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children ranged from 7% to 45%. Among adults the prevalence of overweight and obesity ranged from 25% to 81.9%. Possible factors determining obesity in this region include: nutrition transition, inactivity, urbanization, marital status, a shorter duration of breastfeeding, frequent snacking, skipping breakfast, a high intake of sugary beverages, an increase in the incidence of eating outside the home, long periods of time spent viewing television, massive marketing promotion of high fat foods, stunting, perceived body image, cultural elements and food subsidize policy. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce the economic and health burden of obesity in this region.
Journal of obesity 09/2011; 2011(6):407237. DOI:10.1155/2011/407237
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the association between fetal macrosomia and adolescent obesity.
Longitudinal cohort study of the association between macrosomia and adolescent obesity.
Between 1 October 2005 and 1 February 2007, a follow-up study of live-born infants born in 1993-1995 in Wuxi, a suburban area of Shanghai, was conducted. Subjects with birth weight > 4000 g were selected as the exposed. For each exposed subject, one subject with a birth weight of 2500-4000 g, matched by year of birth, sex of infant, and type of institute at birth, was chosen as non-exposed. Clinical data were collected by structured interview and physical examination. Obesity was defined as body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m(2))) higher than the sex-age-specific criteria by the working group on obesity in China. Distribution of baseline characteristics and adolescent obesity rate between the exposed and non-exposed groups was compared.
A total of 1435 pairs of exposed and non-exposed subjects were included in the final analysis. No major difference in baseline characteristics (other than birth weight) was found between the exposed and non-exposed groups. Obesity rate was significantly higher in the exposed group (2.9%) than in the non-exposed group (1.6%). Adolescent obesity rates were 1.4, 1.9, 2.6, and 5.6%, respectively, in study subjects with a birth weight of 2500-3499, 3500-3999, 4000-4499, and > or =4500 g. The association between birth weight and adolescent obesity remained essentially the same when mother's demographic and anthropometric factors, breast feeding, and adolescent life-style factors were adjusted.
Compared with infants of normal birth weight, infants with birth weight >4000 g, especially those >4500 g, are at increased risk of adolescent obesity.
International journal of obesity (2005) 07/2009; 33(8):923-8. DOI:10.1038/ijo.2009.131 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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