Breastfeeding and obesity among Kuwaiti preschool children.
ABSTRACT To determine if breastfeeding and its duration are associated with a reduced risk of obesity among Kuwaiti preschool children.
The sample consisted of 2,291 (1,092 males and 1,199 females) preschool children (3-6 years of age) and their mothers. The data were collected from September 2003 to June 2004. Height and weight measurements were used for defining weight status while other data were collected by questionnaire.
There was no significant association of breastfeeding or its duration with either overweight or obesity among preschool children after adjusting for effects of the confounders. The child's gender, age and birth weight were the significant factors influencing current weight. Girls were at 32% higher risk of becoming obese than boys. Children aged 4-5 years were at nearly 3 times higher risk of overweight and obesity than children of less than 4 years. Children with higher birth weight (>or=4 kg) had double the risk of obesity than those of normal birth weight (>or=2.5 to <4.0 kg). Maternal obesity was a strong predictor of obesity in the children. A child with an obese mother had nearly 2 times higher risk of being overweight (BMI between the 85th the 95th percentiles) and 3 times of being obese (BMI >or=95th percentile) compared to a child born to a mother with a normal body weight.
Breastfeeding and its duration are not associated with obesity status. However, there is a positive association between child and maternal obesity.
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ABSTRACT: At 5 to 6 years of age, body fatness normally declines to a minimum, a point called adiposity rebound (AR), before increasing again into adulthood. We determined whether a younger age at AR was associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and whether this risk was independent of fatness at AR and parent obesity. A retrospective cohort study using lifelong height and weight measurements recorded in outpatient medical records. Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound (GHC), a health maintenance organization based in Seattle, Washington. All 390 GHC members (and their parents) born at GHC between January 1, 1965, and January 1, 1971, who had at least one recorded adult height and weight measurement plus two visits with recorded height and weight measurements in each of three age intervals: 1.5 to 4, 4 to 8, and 8 to 16 years. We calculated the mean body mass index (BMI) of each subject during young adulthood (age 21 to 29 years) and the BMI of the parents when each subject was 1.5 years of age. Adult obesity was defined as a BMI >/=27.8 for males and >/=27. 3 for females. Curves were fit to each subject's BMI values between ages 1.5 and 16 years, and the age and BMI at AR were calculated from these curves. Subjects were divided into tertiles of age at AR (early, middle, and late), BMI at AR, and parent BMI (heavy, medium, and lean). The mean age at AR was 5.5 years, and 15% of the cohort was obese in young adulthood. Adult obesity rates were higher in those with early versus late AR (25% vs 5%), those who were heavy versus lean at AR (24% vs 4%), those with heavy versus lean mothers (25% vs 5%), and those with heavy versus lean fathers (21% vs 5%). After adjusting for parent BMI and BMI at AR, the odds ratio for adult obesity associated with early versus late AR was 6.0 (95% CI, 1.3-26.6). An early AR is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity independent of parent obesity and the BMI at AR. Future research should examine the biological and behavioral determinants of AR.PEDIATRICS 03/1998; 101(3):E5. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the influence of initial infant feeding on obesity in later life. A systematic review of published studies investigating the association between infant feeding and a measure of obesity was performed with Medline (1966 onward) and Embase (1980 onward) databases, supplemented with manual searches. Data extraction was conducted by 2 authors. Analyses were based on odds ratios of obesity among initially breastfed subjects, compared with formula-fed subjects, pooled with fixed-effects models. Sixty-one studies reported on the relationship of infant feeding to a measure of obesity in later life; of these, 28 (298900 subjects) provided odds ratio estimates. In these studies, breastfeeding was associated with a reduced risk of obesity, compared with formula feeding (odds ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85-0.89). The inverse association between breastfeeding and obesity was particularly strong in 11 small studies of <500 subjects (odds ratio: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.33-0.55) but was still apparent in larger studies of > or =500 subjects (odds ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.85-0.90). In 6 studies that adjusted for all 3 major potential confounding factors (parental obesity, maternal smoking, and social class), the inverse association was reduced markedly (from an odds ratio of 0.86 to 0.93) but not abolished. A sensitivity analysis examining the potential impact of the results of 33 published studies (12505 subjects) that did not provide odds ratios (mostly reporting no relationship between breastfeeding and obesity) showed little effect on the results. Initial breastfeeding protects against obesity in later life. However, a further review including large unpublished studies exploring the effect of confounding factors in more detail is needed.PEDIATRICS 05/2005; 115(5):1367-77. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We review the 2004 literature on risk factors for childhood overweight. Given the steady increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight, the identification of risk factors is of increasing importance. A number of studies confirmed that parental overweight is the most potent risk factor for childhood overweight. Childhood temperament was found to mediate the effects of parental overweight with a difficult temperament increasing the risk of overweight. Newer findings implicate regular consumption of fast food and sweetened drinks as risk factors, as well as sedentary behavior; although a meta-analysis suggested that the effects of the latter factor are small. Other work was consistent with the finding that parental overcontrol of children's feeding behavior, particularly for those at high risk of developing overweight, may lead to overweight. Identification of groups of children at high risk for becoming overweight offers the potential for early intervention to reduce the intergenerational transfer of obesity. This is an area for future research because the nature of effective intervention is at present unclear. There is a suggestion that focused behavior change efforts on one target such as reducing the intake of sweetened beverages may be more successful than attempts to make broader dietary changes. There is also evidence that targeting parental behaviors may be more effective than interventions directed solely toward children, suggesting that modification of the environment that a child is exposed to during early development may have a lasting effect.Current Opinion in Pediatrics 11/2005; 17(5):648-52. · 2.63 Impact Factor