The crystal structure of the ruthenium DNA 'light-switch' complex Λ-[Ru(TAP)2(11-Cl-dppz)](2+) (TAP=tetraazaphenanthrene, dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a':2',3'-c]phenazine) bound to the oligonucleotide duplex d(TCGGCGCCGA)2 is reported. The synthesis of the racemic ruthenium complex is described for the first time, and the racemate was used in this study. The crystal structure, at atomic resolution (1.0 Å), shows one ligand as a wedge in the minor groove, resulting in the 51(°) kinking of the double helix, as with the parent Λ-[Ru(TAP)2(dppz)](2+). Each complex binds to one duplex by intercalation of the dppz ligand and also by semi-intercalation of one of the orthogonal TAP ligands into a second symmetrically equivalent duplex. The 11-chloro substituent binds with the major component (66%) oriented with the 11-chloro substituent on the purine side of the terminal step of the duplex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a crystal structure, at atomic resolution (1.1 Å, 100 K), of a ruthenium polypyridyl complex bound to duplex DNA, in which one ligand acts as a wedge in the minor groove, resulting in the 51° kinking of the double helix. The complex cation Λ-[Ru(1,4,5,8-tetraazaphenanthrene)(2)(dipyridophenazine)](2+) crystallizes in a 11 ratio with the oligonucleotide d(TCGGCGCCGA) in the presence of barium ions. Each complex binds to one duplex by intercalation of the dipyridophenazine ligand and also by semiintercalation of one of the orthogonal tetraazaphenanthrene ligands into a second symmetrically equivalent duplex. The result is noncovalent cross-linking and marked kinking of DNA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2011; 108(43):17610-4. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1108685108 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA mismatches represent a novel target in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics for cancer, because deficiencies in DNA mismatch repair are implicated in cancers, and cells that are repair-deficient show a high frequency of mismatches. Metal complexes with bulky intercalating ligands serve as probes for DNA mismatches. Here, we report the high-resolution (0.92 Å) crystal structure of the ruthenium 'light switch' complex Δ-[Ru(bpy)(2)dppz](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and dppz = dipyridophenazine), which is known to show luminescence on binding to duplex DNA, bound to both mismatched and well-matched sites in the oligonucleotide 5'-(dCGGAAATTACCG)(2)-3' (underline denotes AA mismatches). Two crystallographically independent views reveal that the complex binds mismatches through metalloinsertion, ejecting both mispaired adenosines. Additional ruthenium complexes are intercalated at well-matched sites, creating an array of complexes in the minor groove stabilized by stacking interactions between bpy ligands and extruded adenosines. This structure attests to the generality of metalloinsertion and metallointercalation as DNA binding modes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of metal ions in determining the solution conformation of the Holliday junction is well established, but to date the picture of metal ion binding from structural studies of the four-way DNA junction is very incomplete. Here we present two refined structures of the Holliday junction formed by the sequence d(TCGGTACCGA) in the presence of Na(+) and Ca(2+), and separately with Sr(2+) to resolutions of 1.85A and 1.65A, respectively. This sequence includes the ACC core found to promote spontaneous junction formation, but its structure has not previously been reported. Almost complete hydration spheres can be defined for each metal cation. The Na(+) sites, the most convincing observation of such sites in junctions to date, are one on either face of the junction crossover region, and stabilise the ordered hydration inside the junction arms. The four Ca(2+) sites in the same structure are at the CG/CG steps in the minor groove. The Sr(2+) ions occupy the TC/AG, GG/CC, and TA/TA sites in the minor groove, giving ten positions forming two spines of ions, spiralling through the minor grooves within each arm of the stacked-X structure. The two structures were solved in the two different C2 lattices previously observed, with the Sr(2+) derivative crystallising in the more highly symmetrical form with two-fold symmetry at its centre. Both structures show an opening of the minor groove face of the junction of 8.4 degrees in the Ca(2+) and Na(+) containing structure, and 13.4 degrees in the Sr(2+) containing structure. The crossover angles at the junction are 39.3 degrees and 43.3 degrees, respectively. In addition to this, a relative shift in the base pair stack alignment of the arms of 2.3A is observed for the Sr(2+) containing structure only. Overall these results provide an insight into the so-far elusive stabilising ion structure for the DNA Holliday junction.
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