Adherence‐enhancing interventions for highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV‐infected patients – a systematic review
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing interventions for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients in developed countries. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed (January 2001 to May 2012) in EMBASE, including MEDLINE records, CENTRAL and PsycInfo. Trials meeting the following predefined inclusion criteria were included: adult patients with an HIV infection treated with HAART, an intervention to enhance patient adherence, adherence as the outcome, clinical outcomes, randomized controlled trial (RCT), article written in English or German, patient enrolment after 2001, and trial conducted in World Health Organization (WHO) stratum A. Selection was performed by two reviewers independently. All relevant data on patient characteristics, interventions, adherence measures and results were extracted in standardized tables. The methodological trial quality was evaluated by two reviewers independently. All discrepancies were discussed until a consensus was reached. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of the heterogeneity of trials. RESULTS: In total, 21 trials fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Of 21 trials, only one that examined motivational interviewing for alcohol-dependent patients showed statistically significant results for adherence rates and viral load in favour of the intervention. One trial showed a statistically significant clinical effect of the intervention; however, inconsistent results were presented for adherence depending on the underlying adherence definition. The results of the remaining 19 trials were not statistically significant or were conflicting for adherence and/or clinical outcomes. However, the methodological trial quality was low. CONCLUSIONS: It is not possible to definitively assess the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing interventions. However, it appears that most adherence interventions have no effect.
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ABSTRACT: Older adults are generally considered to be at greater risk for medication non-adherence due to factors such as medication complexity, side effects, cost, and cognitive decline. However, this generalization may not apply to older adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Regardless of age, suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) can lead to increased viral load, immunosuppression, drug-resistant viral strains, co-morbidities, and opportunistic infections. Understanding trends of adherence to ART among older adults is critical, especially as the population of people living with HIV grows older. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if older individuals with HIV are less likely to be non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy than younger individuals with HIV. A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles evaluating adherence to ART in older adults. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts, applied inclusion criteria, and appraised study quality. The bibliographies of qualifying studies were searched. Data were abstracted from studies by two independent authors. Meta-analyses were conducted, and adherence levels were reported as the relative risk of non-adherence in older individuals compared to younger individuals. The systematic search yielded 1,848 abstracts. Twelve studies met full inclusion criteria. The overall meta-analysis found that older age reduced risk for non-adherence by 27 % (relative risk (RR) 0.72, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.82). Studies assessing both short-term and long-term adherence demonstrated a significant reduction in non-adherence among older patients (RR 0.75, 95 % CI 0.64-0.87 and RR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.50-0.85, respectively). Older adults with HIV have a reduced risk for non-adherence to ART than their younger counterparts. Future studies should seek to elucidate contributing factors of adherence among older individuals with HIV.Drugs & Aging 08/2013; 30(10). DOI:10.1007/s40266-013-0107-7 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Emerging evidence suggests financial incentives (FIs) improve medication adherence in select populations. A small proportion of adolescents with perinatal HIV (PaHIV) transfer to adult services with established poor adherence and advanced disease. We describe a single center adherence intervention combining FIs with motivational interviewing (MI). Eligible patients (PaHIV,16-25 years, CD4 count ≤200, off ART despite multiple attempts) received MI, and FI dependent on viral load (VL) reduction for 1 year. Outcome measures compared CD4 gain from baseline at 1 year and 12 months post cessation of FI/MI. Eleven young people enrolled; median age 19 years, 8 female. Baseline median CD4 count 30 cells/μL (IQR 10-160), VL 12,870 c/mL. Outcomes at 12 months: 9/11 ever achieved VL <50, 5 sustained undetectable VL, median CD4 140, mean CD4 gain 90 cells/μL at 1 year. Twelve months post cessation of MI/FI; six VL <50, median CD4 75, mean CD4 gain 122 cells/μL. Total FI expenditure £1,350: £68 per 50 CD4 cells at 1 year, £55 at 24 months. To prevent death, adolescents with PaHIV require novel interventions to reverse poor patterns of adherence established since childhood. FI/MI improved virological and immunological outcomes with minimal expenditure. Extension of this pilot work for vulnerable individuals is now indicated.AIDS patient care and STDs 01/2014; 28(1):28-32. DOI:10.1089/apc.2013.0262 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a sample of ART recipients in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics in Tshwane, South Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The sample comprised 304 male and female ART recipients at two President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinics. Using an interview schedule, we assessed patients' alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), other drug use, level of adherence to ART, and reasons for missing ART doses (AIDS Clinical Trials Group adherence instrument). Additionally, patients' views were solicited on: the likely effectiveness of potential facilitators; the preferred quantity, duration, format, and setting of the sessions; the usefulness of having family members/friends attend sessions along with the patient; and potential skill sets to be imparted. About half of the male drinkers' and three quarters of the female drinkers' Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores were suggestive of hazardous or harmful drinking. Average self-reported ART adherence was 89.7%. There was a significant association between level of alcohol use and degree of ART adherence. Overall, participants perceived two clinic-based sessions, each of one hour's duration, in a group format, and facilitated by a peer or adherence counselor, as most appropriate and acceptable. Participants also had a favorable attitude towards family and friends accompanying them to the sessions. They also favored an alcohol-focused adherence counseling program that employs motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy-type approaches. The association between alcohol use and ART nonadherence points to a need for alcohol-focused ART adherence interventions. Patients' perceptions suggest their amenability to clinic-based brief motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy-type adherence interventions delivered by lay persons in group settings. Further research should investigate how best to implement such interventions in the existing health system.Patient Preference and Adherence 03/2014; 8:401-13. DOI:10.2147/PPA.S55547 · 1.49 Impact Factor