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    ABSTRACT: Diarrhea is a frequent but overlooked complication of kidney transplantation. Diarrhea is repeatedly neglected, often considered by patients and clinicians an unavoidable side effect of immunosuppressive regimens. It is, however, associated with a significant impairment in life quality. Severe and chronic posttransplant diarrhea may lead to dehydration, malabsorption, rehospitalization, immunosuppression, noncompliance, and a greater risk of graft loss and death. There is thus a need to optimize and standardize the management of posttransplant diarrhea with consistent diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. A recent study has suggested that the increased sensitivity of molecular tools might help in early pathogen identification and guidance of antimicrobial treatment. Most bacterial and protozoan infections are readily curable with appropriate antimicrobial agents; cryptosporidiosis and C. difficile infections may however be complicated by relapsing courses. In addition, identification of enteric viral genomes in stool has further reduced posttransplant diarrhea of unknown origin. Chronic norovirus-related posttransplant diarrhea, arising from the interplay of the virus and immunosuppressive drugs, has emerged as a new challenge in the field. Prospective and controlled studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of innovative anti-norovirus therapeutics, as well as optimal immunosuppressive regimens, to enable viral clearance while preventing rejection and donor-specific antibody formation. This review seeks to provide a basis for the design of future clinical prospective studies.
    Transplantation 07/2014; 98(8). DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000000335 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter species are the leading cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in industrialized countries. However, bacteremia is detected in <1% of patients with Campylobacter enteritis and is most likely to occur in patients who are immunocompromised or of older age. To our knowledge, only 2 cases of Campylobacter jejuni bacteremia have been reported in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). We present a case of an RTR with C. jejuni bacteremia presenting as self-limiting diarrhea followed by fever and cellulitis. The patient was successfully treated with a 2-week course of imipenem and developed no other complications. We review all cases of Campylobacter bacteremia in RTRs, and discuss clinical presentation and treatment of this potentially fatal disease.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 10/2014; 16(6). DOI:10.1111/tid.12302 · 1.98 Impact Factor