Detox agents do not affect the pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the rat.
ABSTRACT Recently, 'detox' agents have been popularly used as forms of diets or nutritional supplements. Especially, several cases have been reported that these detox agents have been used to mask drug tests among drug abusers. In the present study, capsule and drink types of detox agents were evaluated for their ability to alter the elimination of methamphetamine (MA) in rats. For this study, MA and its major metabolite, amphetamine (AP) in urine samples were determined using LC-tandem mass spectrometry after administration of the detox agents to MA-treated rats. As a result, significant differences were not shown between control and detox-dosed groups in the amounts of MA and AP excreted into urine as well as the volume of excreted urine. This result suggests that the detox agents tested may not affect the metabolism or elimination of MA and further might have minimal effect on narcotics detection in the urine samples of drug abusers.
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Article: 'Detox': science or sales pitch?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is no question that the world is becoming increasingly toxic, with worldwide dissemination of industrial chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals and radioactive elements. Many of these toxins have demonstrated harmful effects including cancer, reproductive, metabolic, and mental health effects. It is also known that many toxins undergo bioaccumulation through the food chain and that synergistic effects can occur whereby combinations of toxins can be more potent than the sum of individual toxins.Australian family physician 01/2008; 36(12):1009-10. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A rapid and sensitive LC/MS method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of N,N-dimethylamphetamine (DMA), N,N-dimethylamphetamine N-oxide (DMANO), methylamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (A) in urine samples. Employing an Alltech C18 column for solid phase extraction followed by LC/MS analysis using an Alltech Platinum EPS C18 column with a mixture of ammonium formate (0.01 M, pH 3) and acetonitrile (77:23, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min, simultaneous identification and quantitation of A, MA, DMA and DMANO in urine can be achieved using a 5-min chromatographic run. The calibration ranges were 0.10-3.0 micro g/mL for DMANO, 0.05-3.0 micro g/mL for DMA and 0.05-5.0 micro g/mL for both MA and A. The intra-, inter-day precision and accuracy for all analytes, spiked at three different concentrations in quality control samples, were in the ranges of 1.7-8.6, 4.1-10.0, -11.6 to 12.9%, respectively. The newly developed method was applied to the analysis of urine samples obtained from 118 suspected MA/DMA abusers, with the presence of MA confirmed in their urine samples under the drug-use surveillance program. Of these 118 samples, 43 were found to contain DMANO and 11 with both DMANO and DMA.Forensic Science International 03/2007; 166(1):1-7. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. Amphetamine (AM) and five amphetamine derivatives, N-ethylamphetamine (NEA), N-butylamphetamine (NBA), 4-methoxyamphetamine (M-AM), 4-methoxy-N-ethylamphetamine (M-NEA) and 4-methoxy-N-butylamphetamine (M-NBA) were incubated with microsomal preparations from cells expressing human CYP2D6 to determine whether the enzyme was capable of catalyzing the direct ring oxidation of all substrates; the N-dealkylation of NEA, NBA, M-NEA and M-NBA; and the O-demethylation of M-AM, M-NEA and M-NBA. 2. None of the six compounds examined was N-dealkylated to any extent. 3. The only metabolites produced from AM, NEA and NBA were the corresponding ring 4-hydroxylated compounds, and the rates of formation were low. 4. All ring 4-methoxylated substrates were efficiently O-demethylated by CYP2D6 to their corresponding phenols. The size of the N-alkyl group influenced the rates of formation of these phenolamines. In contrast to reported findings with 2- and 3-methoxyamphetamines, none of the 4-methoxyamphetamines was ring-oxidized in the CYP2D6 enzyme system to 2- or 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyamphetamines or to dihydroxyamphetamines.Xenobiotica 08/1999; 29(7):719-32. · 1.98 Impact Factor