Detox agents do not affect the pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the rat
ABSTRACT Recently, 'detox' agents have been popularly used as forms of diets or nutritional supplements. Especially, several cases have been reported that these detox agents have been used to mask drug tests among drug abusers. In the present study, capsule and drink types of detox agents were evaluated for their ability to alter the elimination of methamphetamine (MA) in rats. For this study, MA and its major metabolite, amphetamine (AP) in urine samples were determined using LC-tandem mass spectrometry after administration of the detox agents to MA-treated rats. As a result, significant differences were not shown between control and detox-dosed groups in the amounts of MA and AP excreted into urine as well as the volume of excreted urine. This result suggests that the detox agents tested may not affect the metabolism or elimination of MA and further might have minimal effect on narcotics detection in the urine samples of drug abusers.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 1. Amphetamine (AM) and five amphetamine derivatives, N-ethylamphetamine (NEA), N-butylamphetamine (NBA), 4-methoxyamphetamine (M-AM), 4-methoxy-N-ethylamphetamine (M-NEA) and 4-methoxy-N-butylamphetamine (M-NBA) were incubated with microsomal preparations from cells expressing human CYP2D6 to determine whether the enzyme was capable of catalyzing the direct ring oxidation of all substrates; the N-dealkylation of NEA, NBA, M-NEA and M-NBA; and the O-demethylation of M-AM, M-NEA and M-NBA. 2. None of the six compounds examined was N-dealkylated to any extent. 3. The only metabolites produced from AM, NEA and NBA were the corresponding ring 4-hydroxylated compounds, and the rates of formation were low. 4. All ring 4-methoxylated substrates were efficiently O-demethylated by CYP2D6 to their corresponding phenols. The size of the N-alkyl group influenced the rates of formation of these phenolamines. In contrast to reported findings with 2- and 3-methoxyamphetamines, none of the 4-methoxyamphetamines was ring-oxidized in the CYP2D6 enzyme system to 2- or 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyamphetamines or to dihydroxyamphetamines.Xenobiotica 08/1999; 29(7):719-32. DOI:10.1080/004982599238344 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The fiscal year (FY) 1986 Environmental Protection Agency National Human Adipose Tissue Survey (NHATS) was conducted to estimate average concentrations of 111 semivolatiles in human adipose tissue within the US general population and selected subpopulations. Population and subpopulation estimates of average semivolatile concentrations were established from 671 adipose tissue specimens pooled across 50 analytical samples. Among polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), average concentrations for the group aged 45 and older were from 188% to 706% higher than for the 0- through 14-year-old age group. Similar increases with age were observed for pesticides. Geographic effects on average concentration were mixed, and no significant race or sex effects were observed. Statistically significant increases from FY 1982 NHATS results were observed for PCBs and hexachlorobenzene, whereas a decrease from FY 1982 was significant for beta-BHC (benzene hexachloride). Increases from FY 1984 NHATS results were significant for p,p-DDT (dichlordiphenylethylene), p,p-DDE (dichlordiphenyldichlor), hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs. The survey establishes baseline average levels of semivolatile compounds in the adipose tissue of US residents.American Journal of Public Health 10/1996; 86(9):1253-9. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.86.9.1253 · 4.23 Impact Factor
Article: 'Detox': science or sales pitch?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is no question that the world is becoming increasingly toxic, with worldwide dissemination of industrial chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals and radioactive elements. Many of these toxins have demonstrated harmful effects including cancer, reproductive, metabolic, and mental health effects. It is also known that many toxins undergo bioaccumulation through the food chain and that synergistic effects can occur whereby combinations of toxins can be more potent than the sum of individual toxins.Australian family physician 01/2008; 36(12):1009-10. · 0.67 Impact Factor