Coding polymorphisms in Casp5, Casp8 and DR4 genes may play a role in predisposition to lung cancer.
ABSTRACT Apoptosis plays a role in the elimination of DNA-damaged cells thus protecting the host from cancer development. Some data indicate that normal variations within the sequence of apoptotic genes may lead to suboptimal apoptotic capacity and therefore increased cancer risk. We tested 19 coding apoptotic gene SNPs in 2-stage molecular epidemiological study. For the preliminary sorting of SNP candidates, we employed a "comparison of extremes" approach, where 111 patients with highly pronounced LC susceptibility (non-smokers or young-onset light smokers) were analyzed against 110 subjects with the evidence for LC tolerance (elderly tumor-free heavy smokers). Three genotypes demonstrated possible association with LC risk (Leu/Leu-homozygotes for Casp5 Val318Leu versus other genotypes: OR=2.47 (95% CI: 1.07-5.69), p=0.03; His-carriers for Casp8 His302Asp: OR=2.26 (95% CI: 1.18-4.31), p=0.02; Arg-carriers for DR4 Lys441Arg: OR=1.89 (95% CI: 1.05-3.40), p=0.03), and therefore were selected for the validation. The extended study included 2 case-control series, namely subjects from Russia (351 LC cases and 538 controls) and Moldova (296 LC cases and 295 controls). Interestingly, all three candidate genotypes consistently demonstrated OR above 1 both in Russian and in Moldovian groups. Although the combined Mantel-Haenszel analysis yet failed to reach statistical significance (OR=1.22 (95% CI: 0.90-1.65), p=0.21; OR=1.17 (95% CI: 0.92-1.50), p=0.21; OR=1.19 (95% CI: 0.95-1.51), p=0.14, respectively), the obtained data indicate that Casp5, Casp8 and DR4 gene polymorphisms may deserve consideration in large-scale case-control studies of LC risk modifiers.
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ABSTRACT: The Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) has been established to conduct combined case-control analyses with augmented statistical power to try to confirm putative genetic associations with breast cancer. We genotyped nine SNPs for which there was some prior evidence of an association with breast cancer: CASP8 D302H (rs1045485), IGFBP3 -202 C --> A (rs2854744), SOD2 V16A (rs1799725), TGFB1 L10P (rs1982073), ATM S49C (rs1800054), ADH1B 3' UTR A --> G (rs1042026), CDKN1A S31R (rs1801270), ICAM5 V301I (rs1056538) and NUMA1 A794G (rs3750913). We included data from 9-15 studies, comprising 11,391-18,290 cases and 14,753-22,670 controls. We found evidence of an association with breast cancer for CASP8 D302H (with odds ratios (OR) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval (c.i.): 0.85-0.94) and 0.74 (95% c.i.: 0.62-0.87) for heterozygotes and rare homozygotes, respectively, compared with common homozygotes; P(trend) = 1.1 x 10(-7)) and weaker evidence for TGFB1 L10P (OR = 1.07 (95% c.i.: 1.02-1.13) and 1.16 (95% c.i.: 1.08-1.25), respectively; P(trend) = 2.8 x 10(-5)). These results demonstrate that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles with small effects on risk can be identified, given sufficiently powerful studies.Nature Genetics 04/2007; 39(3):352-8. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although most lung cancers are a result of smoking, approximately 25% of lung cancer cases worldwide are not attributable to tobacco use, accounting for over 300,000 deaths each year. Striking differences in the epidemiological, clinical and molecular characteristics of lung cancers arising in never smokers versus smokers have been identified, suggesting that they are separate entities. This Review summarizes our current knowledge of this unique and poorly understood disease.Nature Reviews Cancer 11/2007; 7(10):778-90. · 29.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We applied an alternative approach to assess the controversial evidence for the role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 deficiencies (null genotypes) in cancer susceptibility. In this study setting, the prevalence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes in the lung cancer patients (LCs, n = 167) were compared with those in the group of putatively cancer resistant individuals, i.e. elderly tumor-free donors (EDs, n = 324). Healthy middle-aged donors (HDs, n = 339) were used as another comparison group. Our results support the previous conclusions of a modest protective effect associated with presence of at least one functional copy of GSTM1 gene; the prevalence of GSTM1 deficiency in LCs (54%) did not differ from that observed in HDs (54%), but showed a significant increase when compared with EDs (45%) (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.00-2.12). Furthermore, in agreement with mechanistic considerations, the GSTM1 null genotypes were more prevalent in squamous cell carcinoma patients (58%) and in lung cancer patients with seemingly low cumulative carcinogen exposure dose (non-smokers: 63%; patients aged below 50 years: 76%). Contrary to GSTM1, no significant effect in the lung cancer proneness was observed for the GSTT1 genotypes. The results of this study are thus in good agreement with the body of literature data, including several published meta-analyses. Consequently, the suggested study design involving additional "cancer resistant" group of non-affected subjects appears to provide highly demonstrative data and to be well suited for pilot investigations and for resolving controversial issues.Lung Cancer 04/2004; 43(3):259-66. · 3.39 Impact Factor