Maternal Vitamin D Status and Risk of Pre-Eclampsia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ABSTRACT Background:Although several studies have investigated the association between maternal serum vitamin D levels and risk of pre-eclampsia, findings are inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational studies was conducted to summarize the evidence on the association between maternal serum vitamin D levels and risk of pre-eclampsia.Methods:PubMed, ISI (Web of science), SCOPUS, SCIRUS, Google Scholar, and EMBASE databases were searched to identify related articles published through December 2012. For systematic review, we found 15 articles that assessed the association between maternal serum vitamin D levels and risk of pre-eclampsia. The meta-analysis was done on 8 studies that reported odds ratios or relative risks for pre-eclampsia. Between-study heterogeneity was examined using Cochran's Q test and I(2). Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to find possible sources of heterogeneity.Results:The meta-analysis on 8 relevant papers revealed an overall significant association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of pre-eclampsia; however, there was significant between-study heterogeneity (I(2) = 52.7%; P = .039). In the subgroup analysis, we found that the overall effect was significant for studies that defined vitamin D deficiency as 25(OH)D ≤ 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL), but not for those that considered it as <38 nmol/L (15.2 ng/mL). The association was seen for "cohort or nested case-control studies" as well as for "cross-sectional or case-control studies" (2.78; 1.45-5.33; P = .002). When the analysis was done by study location, the associations remained significant only for studies that came from the United States.Conclusion:There was a significant relationship between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Further studies are required, particularly in developing countries.
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ABSTRACT: In this article, we focus on the biggest groups of organ transplant recipients, patients with a kidney or liver graft. Among these patients, about one sixth included women of childbearing potential. Therefore, the wish of getting pregnant is frequent in these peculiar patients, and careful planning and management of the pregnancies requires the expertise of obstetricians, midwives and transplant experts. Altogether, the outcome of the pregnancies in these women is acceptable. About 75% off all pregnancies ended successfully with live births, and this is comparable if not superior to pregnancies in healthy women. This success might be caused not only by the special and intensive care provided to these high-risk pregnancies by the transplant centres but also by the low rate of unplanned pregnancies. The risk of rejections and organ loss after delivery is about 10%, and it is slightly enhanced in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) in comparison to kidney graft recipients (KTRs) but the number of organ losses in direct association with a pregnancy is rare. However, there is not only a higher frequency of pregnancy-associated disorders such as pre-eclampsia and preterm delivery but also an acceleration of hypertension, new-onset diabetes mellitus and newly arising infections also favoured by the maintained immunosuppressive therapy. This implies a specialized 'control system' for these pregnant women that comprises ultrasound and Doppler investigation for risk assessment, infection screening, suitable therapy and the choice of non-teratogenic immunosuppressives. Antihypertensive treatment must be well balanced and adjusted to the possible growth-retarding effect on the foetus as well as on the co-morbidity of the mother. Finally, supplementation of vitamin D and iron is much more important in these transplanted women than in healthy pregnant women as vitamin D deficiency and anaemia are discussed to have an impact on pre-eclampsia and preterm delivery. These claims are widely discussed. Furthermore, the current literature is systematically reviewed by Scopus analysis.Bailliè re s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 08/2014; 28(8). DOI:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2014.07.021 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To our knowledge, there is no study that has examined the effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic status in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women with GDM. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 54 women with GDM. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either vitamin D supplements or placebo. Individuals in the vitamin D group (n = 27) received capsules containing 50,000 IU vitamin D3 2 times during the study (at baseline and at day 21 of the intervention) and those in the placebo group (n = 27) received 2 placebos at the same times. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and after 6 wk of the intervention to quantify relevant variables. Cholecalciferol supplementation resulted in increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations compared with placebo (+18.5 ± 20.4 compared with +0.5 ± 6.1 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Furthermore, intake of vitamin D supplements led to a significant decrease in concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (-17.1 ± 14.8 compared with -0.9 ± 16.6 mg/dL; P < 0.001) and serum insulin (-3.08 ± 6.62 compared with +1.34 ± 6.51 μIU/mL; P = 0.01) and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (-1.28 ± 1.41 compared with +0.34 ± 1.79; P < 0.001) and a significant increase in the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (+0.03 ± 0.03 compared with -0.001 ± 0.02; P = 0.003) compared with placebo. A significant reduction in concentrations of total (-11.0 ± 23.5 compared with +9.5 ± 36.5 mg/dL; P = 0.01) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (-10.8 ± 22.4 compared with +10.4 ± 28.0 mg/dL; P = 0.003) cholesterol was also seen after vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women with GDM had beneficial effects on glycemia and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but did not affect inflammation and oxidative stress. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir as IRCT201305115623N7.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2013; 98(6). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.072785 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preterm neonates are at high risk of vitamin deficiencies, which may expose them to increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies in Tunisian very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. A total of 607 VLBW and 300 term neonates were included in the study. Plasma vitamins A and E were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography and vitamin D was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Prevalence of vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies were dramatically elevated in VLBW neonates and were significantly higher than term neonates (75.9% vs. 63.3%; 71.3% vs. 55.5%; and 65.2% vs. 40.4%, respectively). In VLBW neonates, the prevalence of vitamin deficiencies was significantly higher in lower classes of gestational age and birth weight. Vitamin E deficiency was associated with pre-eclampsia [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, 95% CI), 1.56 (1.01-2.44); p < 0.01] and gestational diabetes [4.01 (1.05-17.0); p < 0.01]. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with twin pregnancy [OR (95% CI), 2.66 (1.33-5.35); p < 0.01] and pre-eclampsia [2.89 (1.36-6.40); p < 0.01]. Vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies are very common in Tunisian VLBW neonates and are associated with pre-eclampsia. Improved nutritional and health support for pregnant women and high dose vitamins A, E, and D supplementation in VLBW neonates are strongly required in Tunisia.Pediatrics & Neonatology 11/2013; 55(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pedneo.2013.09.006 · 0.88 Impact Factor