Pharmacokinetics of sorafenib in patients with renal impairment undergoing hemodialysis.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Essen Medical School, Essen, Germany.
International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (Impact Factor: 1.04). 02/2009; 47(1):61-4. DOI: 10.5414/CPP47061
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of sorafenib against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been extensively reported. However, there is little information available about the use of sorafenib for HCC patients with end-stage renal failure. We herein report the safe introduction of sorafenib therapy for a HCC patient on hemodialysis. A 63-year-old male had received multidisciplinary treatments, including transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radio frequency ablation, for HCC since 1996, and had been undergoing hemodialysis since 2005. He also underwent TACE for multiple liver recurrence of HCC in 2011. Sorafenib therapy (200 mg/day) started eight days after the TACE. The pharmacokinetic parameters of sorafenib and its active metabolite, M-2, were within the reference levels observed in patients with normal renal function eight and nine days after the initiation of sorafenib. The dose of sorafenib was reduced to 200 mg every other day on day 154 due to hypertension and general fatigue. Because of the progression of disease after five months, sorafenib was withdrawn on day 180. He was admitted to the emergency department because of a high fever during hemodialysis on day 201, and died of septic shock induced by Staphylococcus lugdunensis on day 203. Sorafenib was well tolerated at an initial dose of 200 mg/day for an HCC patient undergoing hemodialysis, thus indicating that renal failure is not necessarily a contraindication for sorafenib therapy.
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    ABSTRACT: Among the novel and target-specific classes of anticancer drugs, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent an extremely promising and rapidly expanding group. TKIs attack cancer-specific targets and therefore have a favorable safety profile. However, as TKIs are taken orally along with other medications on a daily basis, there is an elevated risk of potentially significant drug–drug interactions. Most TKIs are metabolized primarily through CYP3A4. In addition, many TKIs are also CYP3A4 inhibitors at the same time. In addition to drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), another determinant of TKI disposition are drug transporters. There is accumulating evidence showing that the majority of currently marketed TKIs interact with ATP-binding cassette transporters, particularly P-glycoprotein as well as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and serve as both substrates and inhibitors. Considering the dual roles of TKIs on both DMEs and drug transporters, and the importance of these enzyme and transporters in drug disposition, the potential for enzyme- and transporter-mediated TKI–drug interactions in patients with cancer is an important consideration. This review provides a comprehensive overview of drug interactions with small molecule TKIs mediated by DMEs and drug transporters. The TKI–drug interactions with TKIs being victims and/or perpetrators are summarized. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a literature search that shed light on the signaling pathways involved in the sorafenib activity as first- or subsequent-line treatment, taking into account its toxicity profile. Sorafenib appears to have better tolerability when compared with other agents in the same indication. Cross-resistance between tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be limited, even after failure with a previous VEGFR inhibitor, but the optimal sequence with TKIs remains to be determined. Randomized trials of second-line treatment options have showed either modest or no differences in terms of progression-free and overall survival (OS). Direct comparison between sorafenib and axitinib demonstrated differences in terms of PFS in favor of axitinib, but not in terms of OS as second-line treatment. In contrast, a phase III study showed a benefit in OS, favoring sorafenib when compared with temsirolimus. In conclusion, after using other VEGF inhibitor such as sunitinib, sorafenib is active and safe for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic RCC.
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