Changes in cancer mortality among HIV-infected patients: the Mortalité 2005 Survey.
ABSTRACT The goal of the current study was to describe the distribution and characteristics of malignancy related deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with use of data obtained from a national survey conducted in France in 2005 and to compare with results obtained from a similar survey conducted in 2000.
The underlying cause of death was documented using a standardized questionnaire fulfilled in French hospital wards and networks that were involved in the treatment of HIV-infected patients.
Among the 1042 deaths reported in 2005 (964 were reported in 2000), 344 were cancer related (34%), which represented a significant increase from 2000 (29% of deaths were cancer related) (P=.02); 134 of the cancer-related deaths were AIDS related and 210 were not AIDS related. Among the cancer-related causes of death, the proportion of hepatitis-related cancers (6% in 2000 vs. 11% in 2005) and non-AIDS/hepatitis-related cancers (38% in 2000 vs 50% in 2005) significantly increased from 2000 to 2005 (P=.03 and P=.01, respectively), compared with the proportion of cancer that was AIDS related and adjusting for age and sex. Among cases involving AIDS, the proportion of non-Hodgkin lymphoma-associated deaths did not change statistically significantly between 2000 and 2005 (11% and 10% of deaths, respectively).
In this study, an increasing proportion of lethal non-AIDS-related cancers was demonstrated from 2000 to 2005; meanwhile, the proportion of lethal AIDS-related cancers remained stable among HIV-infected patients. Thus, cancer prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and improved management should be included in the routine long-term follow-up of HIV-infected patients.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about survival and factors associated with mortality after cancer diagnosis among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Using Poisson regression, we analyzed incidence rates of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers (ADC), non-AIDS-defining infection-related cancers (NADCI), and non-AIDS-defining noninfection-related cancers (NADCNI) among HIV Outpatient Study participants seen at least twice from 1996-2010. All-cause mortality within each cancer category and by calendar period (1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010) were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival methods and log-rank tests. We identified risk factors for all-cause mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Among 8350 patients, 627 were diagnosed with 664 cancers. Over the 3 time periods, the age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates for ADC and NADCNI declined (both P < .001) and for NADCI did not change (P = .13). Five-year survival differed by cancer category (ADC, 54.5%; NADCI, 65.8%; NADCNI, 65.9%; P = .018), as did median CD4 cell count (107, 241, and 420 cells/mm(3); P < .001) and median log10 viral load (4.1, 2.3, and 2.0 copies/mL; P < .001) at cancer diagnosis, respectively. Factors independently associated with increased mortality for ADC were lower nadir CD4 cell count (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-6.59) and detectable viral load (≥400 copies/mL; HR = 1.72 [95% CI, 1.01-2.94]) and for NADCNI, age (HR = 1.50 [95% CI, 1.16-1.94]), non-Hispanic black race (HR = 1.92 [95% CI, 1.15-3.24]), lower nadir CD4 cell count (HR = 1.77 [95% CI, 1.07-2.94]), detectable viral load (HR = 1.96 [95% CI, 1.18-3.24]), and current or prior tobacco use (HR = 3.18 [95% CI, 1.77-5.74]). Since 1996, ADC and NADCNI incidence rates have declined. Survival after cancer diagnosis has increased with concomitant increases in CD4 cell count in recent years. Advances in HIV therapy, including early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy, may help reduce mortality risk among HIV-infected persons with cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: We examine the trend in causes of death among people living with AIDS in the city of Sa˜o Paulo, Brazil, in the periods before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and we investigate potential disparities across districts of residence. Methods: Descriptive study of three periods: pre-HAART (1991–1996); early post- HAART (1997–1999); and late post-HAART (2000–2006). The data source was the SãoPaulo State STD/AIDS Program and Sa˜o Paulo State Data Analysis Foundation. Causes of death were classified by the ICD-9 (1991–1995) and ICD-10 (1996–2006). We estimated age-adjusted mortality rates for leading underlying causes of death and described underlying and associated causes of death according to sociodemographic characteristics and area of residence. We used Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test to compare categorical variables. Areas of residence were categorized using a socioeconomic index. To analyze trends we apply generalized linear model with Poisson regression. Results: We evaluated 32,808 AIDS-related deaths. Between the pre- and late post-HAART periods, the proportion of deaths whose underlying causes were non- AIDS-related diseases increased from 0.2% to 9.6% (p,0.001): from 0.01% to 1.67% (p,0.001) for cardiovascular diseases; 0.01% to 1.62% (p,0.001) for bacterial/unspecified pneumonia; and 0.03% to 1.46% (p,0.001) for non-AIDSdefining cancers. In the late post-HAART period, the most common associated causes of death were bacterial/unspecified pneumonia (35.94%), septicemia (33.46%), cardiovascular diseases (10.11%) and liver diseases (8.0%); and common underlying causes, besides AIDS disease, included non-AIDS-defining cancers in high-income areas, cardiovascular diseases in middle-income areas and assault in low-income areas. Conclusions: The introduction of HAART has shifted the mortality profile away from AIDS-related conditions, suggesting changes in the pattern of morbidity, but heterogeneously according to area of residence. There is a need for public policies aimed at adapting health care services to address the new scenario.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114661. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114661 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This consensus document has been prepared by a panel of experts appointed by GeSIDA. This paper reviews the recommendations on the most important non-AIDS defining malignancies that can affect patients living with AIDS. Lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, anal carcinoma and other less frequent malignancies such as breast, prostate, vagina or colon cancers are reviewed. The aim of the recommendations is to make clinicians who attend to this patients aware of how to prevent, diagnose and treat this diseases. The recommendations for the use of antiretroviral therapy when the patient develops a malignancy are also presented. In support of the recommendations we have used the modified criteria of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.eimc.2014.04.008 · 1.88 Impact Factor