Intracellular magnesium (icMg) depletion may coexist with normomagnesemia. Mg deficiency (serum and/or intracellular) and decreased heart rate variability (HRV) are common in heart failure (HF). Since both are predictors of poor prognosis, it was of interest to evaluate the effect of Mg supplementation on HRV in patients with HF.
We investigated the effect of Mg administration on HRV in normomagnesemic patients with systolic HF. HRV, serum Mg and icMg were determined before and after 5-week 300 mg/day Mg citrate treatment in 16 patients (group 1). The control group included 16 Mg-non-treated HF patients (group 2). HRV was determined by a non-linear dynamics analysis, derived from the chaos theory, which calculates HRV-correlation dimension (HRV-CD). After 5 weeks, serum Mg (mmol/l) increased more significantly in group 1 (from 0.78+/-0.04 to 0.89+/-0.06, p<0.001), than in group 2 (from 0.79+/-0.07 to 0.84+/-0.06, p=0.042). IcMg and HRV-CD increased significantly only in group 1 (from 59+/-7 to 66+/-9 mmol/g cell protein, p=0.025, and from 3.47+/-0.42 to 3.94+/-0.36, p<0.001, respectively). In group 2, the differences in the respective parameters were 63+/-12 to 66+/-9 mmol/g cell protein (p=0.7) and 3.59+/-0.42 to 3.55+/-0.4 (p=0.8).
Mg administration to normomagnesemic patients with systolic HF increases serum Mg, icMg and HRV-CD. Increasing of HRV by Mg supplementation may prove beneficial to HF patients.
"There are a few studies demonstrating the relationship between magnesium supplementation, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness. Some reports point out beneficial effects of magnesium supplementation in improving endothelial function in the brachial artery in patients with coronary artery disease , heart failure , and diabetes mellitus , while others show favorable outcome of magnesium supplementation through improvement of insulin sensitivity [45, 46]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, including changes in intracellular concentrations of calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. There is a significant inverse correlation between serum magnesium and incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Magnesium is a mineral with important functions in the body such as antiarrhythmic effect, actions in vascular tone, contractility, glucose metabolism, and insulin homeostasis. In addition, lower concentrations of magnesium are associated with oxidative stress, proinflammatory state, endothelial dysfunction, platelet aggregation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. The conflicting results of studies evaluating the effects of magnesium supplements on blood pressure and other cardiovascular outcomes indicate that the action of magnesium in the vascular system is present but not yet established. Therefore, this mineral supplementation is not indicated as part of antihypertensive treatment, and further studies are needed to better clarify the role of magnesium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Previous studies correlating electrolytes levels with heart rate variability (HRV) were conducted exclusively in diseased patients and fail to demonstrate significant correlations, except for a few. Whether absence of significant correlations is physiological or hidden by the associated pathologies is uncertain. Aim: To evaluate the effects of electrolytes concentrations on heart rate variability in apparently healthy subjects.
Setting and Design: It was a case-control laboratory-based study. Patients and Methods: The study involved twenty-two apparently healthy males and twenty-three females. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, hemoglobin and random blood glucose levels, weights, heights, blood pressures and HRV were measured according to the standards. Possible confounding factors were introduced as a covariate when correlating electrolytes concentrations with HRV indices using partial correlations. Results: The study involved 23(51.1%) females and 22(48.9%) males. The ages of studied subjects range between 20 – 40 years (Mean (M) ± Standard deviation (SD) = 25.24±4.79 years). M±SD of the body mass indices = 24.74±6.13 Kg/m2, the mean arterial blood pressures = 90.17±9.78 mmHg, Hemoglobin concentrations =13.00±2.48 g/dl, random blood glucose concentrations = 95.69±16.70 mg/dl. There were no significant correlations between sodium, potassium and
calcium concentrations and studied short-term HRV indices. In contrast, there is a significant negative correlation between magnesium concentrations and sympathovagal balance (correlation coefficient (CC) = - 0.376, P = 0.020). Conclusion: Sympathetic modulations on heart rate tend to override parasympathetic modulations as magnesium concentration decreases. Otherwise, there were no significant correlations between sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations and HRV indices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sea water desalination provides fresh water that typically lacks minerals essential to human health and to agricultural productivity. Thus the rising proportion of desalinated sea water consumed by both the domestic and agricultural sectors constitutes a public health risk. Research on low-magnesium water irrigation showed that crops developed magnesium deficiency symptoms that could lead to plant death, and tomato yields were reduced by 10-15%. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported on a relationship between sudden cardiac death rates and magnesium intake deficits. An optimization model, developed and tested to provide recommendations for Water Distribution System (WDS) quality control in terms of meeting optimal water quality requirements, was run in computational experiments based on an actual regional WDS. The expected magnesium deficit due to the operation of a large Sea Water Desalination Plant (SWDP) was simulated, and an optimal operation policy, in which remineralization at the SWDP was combined with blending desalinated and natural water to achieve the required quality, was generated. The effects of remineralization costs and WDS physical layout on the optimal policy were examined by sensitivity analysis. As part of the sensitivity blending natural and desalinated water near the treatment plants will be feasible up to 16.2 US cents/m(3), considering all expenses. Additional chemical injection was used to meet quality criteria when blending was not feasible.
Water Research 05/2013; 47(7):2164-76. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2013.01.018 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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