Serum titers of IgG antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and risk of multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT We conducted a prospective nested case-control study among military service members to investigate whether antibodies against tetanus or diphtheria predict multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. Paired T-tests were used to compare means of anti-tetanus and diphtheria toxoids among 56 MS cases and 112 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR). There were no differences between the mean serum IgG antibodies against tetanus (p-value 0.28) or diphtheria (p-value 0.45) in the baseline samples. The OR of MS associated with 1 standard deviation difference in antibody titers was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.48-1.21) for tetanus (SD=4.71) and 1.03 (0.73-1.45) for diphtheria (SD=0.87). Results of this study suggest serum IgG antibodies against tetanus or diphtheria are not predictors of MS risk.
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ABSTRACT: There is currently a need for vaccine development to improve the immunogenicity of protective epitopes, which themselves are often poorly immunogenic. Although the immunogenicity of these epitopes can be enhanced by linking them to highly immunogenic carriers, such carriers derived from current vaccines have not proven to be generally effective. One reason may be related to epitope-specific suppression, in which prior vaccination with a protein can inhibit the antibody response to new epitopes linked to the protein. To circumvent such inhibition, a peptide from tetanus toxoid was identified that, when linked to a B cell epitope and injected into tetanus toxoid-primed recipients, retained sequences for carrier but not suppressor function. The antibody response to the B cell epitope was enhanced. This may be a general method for taking advantage of previous vaccinations in the development of new vaccines.Science 08/1990; 249(4967):423-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A clinical and laboratory profile of the immunological system of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) strongly suggested that many specific immune deficiencies exist in MS. The immunological history showed that patients with MS had had more tonsillectomies, appendicectomies, and childhood infections than matched controls, which suggested that there had been problems in controlling various types of childhood infections. The cell-mediated immune response and the circulating antibody titres were specifically impaired against a variety of antigens. Patients with MS had significantly lower serum antibody titres than controls against many naturally occurring antigens-namely, diptheria and tetanus toxoids, adenovirus, and mumps viruses. Raised serum antibody titres were found against measles and varicella zoster viruses while no difference was found towards other antigens. The delayed hypersensitivity reaction and the immunological memory of patients with MS were also greatly reduced against the mumps skin test antigens. There were normal amounts of circulating T and B lymphocytes, and the phytohaemagglutinin, concanavallin A, pokeweed mitogen, and encephalitogens lymphocyte transformation was not different from that in controls. These results indicated that patients with MS have more infectious problems than normal people and that both their T and B cell systems cannot mount a fully normal immunological response to some viral and bacterial antigens, while they give an increased response to others.British medical journal 02/1976; 1(6003):183-6.
Article: Treatment of multiple sclerosis with T-cell receptor peptides: results of a double-blind pilot trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A T-cell receptor (TCR) peptide vaccine from the V beta 5.2 sequence expressed in multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques and on myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells boosted peptide-reactive T cells in patients with progressive MS. Vaccine responders had a reduced MBP response and remained clinically stable without side effects during one year of therapy, whereas nonresponders had an increased MBP response and progressed clinically. Peptide-specific T helper 2 cells directly inhibited MBP-specific T helper 1 cells in vitro through the release of interleukin-10, implicating a bystander suppression mechanism that holds promise for treatment of MS and other autoimmune diseases.Nature Medicine 11/1996; 2(10):1109-15. · 22.46 Impact Factor