The nationwide epidemic of obesity may be due, in part, to declining levels of physical activity, raising the possibility that other components of health-related physical fitness may also be in decline. Few data are available to describe and monitor the physical fitness of children and youth. The Georgia Youth Fitness Assessment was conducted to assess health-related fitness in Georgia's fifth- and seventh-grade students, provide a baseline against which future progress could be measured, and guide public and private leaders and decision makers.
A statewide probability sample of fifth- and seventh-grade students designed to enable grade-specific comparisons by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural status was drawn. Measurements included aerobic capacity; body composition; and muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility. Physical activity during the most recent 3 days was assessed. The survey was conducted in 2006; the data were analyzed in 2007-2008.
Ninety-three schools (86% response rate) and 5248 students (77% response rate) participated. Fifty-two percent of students did not meet the standard for healthy aerobic fitness; 23% did not meet the standard for muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility; 30% were outside the recommended range for BMI. Twenty-two percent did not achieve the recommended 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. All subgroups (e.g., boys/girls, urban/rural) scored poorly.
Substantial numbers of Georgia's fifth- and seventh-grade students exhibit unhealthy levels of physical fitness. These data are consistent with the suggestion that physical inactivity has led to deficient levels of health-related fitness in more areas than just body composition. Monitoring all components of health-related fitness would provide helpful information about the health of children and youth.
"The other three fitness variables did not differ by urban or rural area (Table 3), an unexpected finding, as physical inactivity and obesity are higher in rural areas according to other recent Chilean national surveys . More research is needed to better understand the correlates of unhealthy fitness in urban and rural areas of Chile, as studies on the topic from other countries are inconsistent –. A better local understanding of the influence of urbanicity on fitness may facilitate the identification of modifiable environmental factors to guide interventions and policies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders.
This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality.
Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05). Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area.
Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention.
PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108053. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108053 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neðst á síðunni er hægt að nálgast greinina í heild sinni með því að smella á hlekkinn Skoða/Opna(view/open) Objective: The main objective of the study was to assess to what degree nine and fifteen year old Icelandic children followed the national physical activity (PA) guidelines for children set forth by the Icelandic Public Health Institute, which recommend no less than 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity a day (MVPA). Material and methods: The study was conducted between September 2003 and January 2004 at eighteen randomly selected schools in the capital area of Reykjavik and towns and rural areas in the northeast. All nine years old (N=662) and fifteen years old (N=661) students were offered to participate. Half of the children were randomly chosen to partake in the PA part of the study where 176 nine-year-old and 162 fifteen-year-old children yielded usable data. We measured participants' height, weight and skinfold thickness and their PA by ActiGraph™ with respect to moderate-to-vigorous intensity (defined as counts >3400 cpm) and average volume. Results: Only 5% of 9-year-old and 9% of 15 year-old students followed the recommended PA guidelines of at least 60 minutes a day of MVPA. MVPA was positively associated with sex (being a boy) and age, but negatively associated with skinfold thickness. Those living in the capital area of Reykjavik rather than in smaller towns and rural areas were likelier to accrue more minutes of MVPA per day. Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of developing PA interventions targeting children of school age. It is important to research and evaluate different ways as to how these interventions should best be conducted. Key words: physical activity, children, body composition, accelerometers. Correspondence: Kristjan Thor Magnusson, firstname.lastname@example.org. Tilgangur: Megintilgangur þessarar rannsóknar var að rannsaka í hvaða mæli 9 og 15 ára börn og unglingar á Íslandi uppfylltu nýlegar hreyfiráðleggingar Lýðheilsustöðvar. Efniviður og aðferðir: Rannsóknin var gerð á tímabilinu september 2003 til janúar 2004 í 18 skólum á höfuðborgarsvæðinu og í þéttbýliskjörnum og dreifbýli á Norðausturlandi sem valdir voru af handahófi. Öllum 9 ára (N=662) og 15 ára (N=661) nemendum skólanna var boðin þátttaka. Helmingur hvors árgangs var valinn, einnig af handahófi, í hreyfihluta rannsóknarinnar og skiluðu 176 9 ára og 162 15 ára nothæfum gögnum. Þátttakendur voru hæðar- og þyngdarmældir og þykkt húðfellinga mæld á fjórum stöðum. Ákefð og tímalengd hreyfingar var mæld með hröðunarmælum (ActiGraph™). Aðalútkomubreyta rannsóknarinnar, fjöldi mínúta yfir 3400 slög/mín á dag, miðaðist við neðri mörk hreyfingar af meðalerfiðri ákefð. Niðurstöður: Samkvæmt hröðunarmælum uppfylltu 5% úrtaks 9 ára barna hreyfiráðleggingar varðandi meðalerfiða og erfiða ákefð dag hvern, en tæp 9% 15 ára unglinga. Aukin hreyfing af þessari ákefð var frekar tengd strákum en stelpum, því að vera 15 ára frekar en 9 ára, að vera með minni þykkt húðfellinga en meiri, auk þess að búa á höfuðborgarsvæðinu frekar en í bæ eða strjálbýli á Norðausturlandi. Ályktanir: Niðurstöðurnar benda til þess að íhlutunar sé þörf til þess að auka meðalerfiða og erfiða hreyfingu barna á skólaaldri. Mikilvægt er að rannsaka hvaða leiðir séu færar í þeim efnum, meðal annars í samvinnu við heimili, skóla, íþróttahreyfinguna og sveitarfélög.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity affects 17% or 12.5 million of America's children, contributing to the rise in children's health disparities. Type 2 diabetes, asthma, vitamin D deficiency, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have also increased over the past few decades. A shift toward a sedentary lifestyle is a major contributor to the decline in children's health. Children spend more time indoors using electronic media and less time engaged in outdoor unstructured play. This article reviews the current evidence of the mental and physical health benefits associated with unstructured, outdoor activities and time spent in a natural environment such as a park or other recreational area. Pediatric health care providers should recommend outdoor activities for children and refer families to safe and easily accessible outdoor areas. Pediatric health care providers can incorporate this simple, lifestyle-based intervention into anticipatory guidance.
Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care 05/2010; 40(5):102-17. DOI:10.1016/j.cppeds.2010.02.003 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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