Immunization with the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine: Impact evaluation, continuing surveillance and future perspectives

Department of Public Health - University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 03/2009; 27(25-26):3285-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.058
Source: PubMed


The 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) showed high efficacy against invasive pneumococcal diseases caused by vaccine serotypes in children less than 2 years-old. Its effectiveness was confirmed under routine use in the US, Canada and several European countries. Disease surveillance and several studies showed that population indirect protection outweighs direct protection of immunized subjects. A substantial impact was also confirmed on pneumonia and acute otitis media. A limited increase in IPD caused by non-vaccine serotypes was registered to date, but far below the magnitude of the beneficial reduction in IPD due to vaccine serotypes. This fact underpins the need for ongoing improved surveillance. New tests based on PCR for the identification and typing of pneumococci represent a very interesting alternative to traditional cultural tests that should be evaluated in the near future. The World Health Organization has recognized the priority to introduce PCV into the routine infant immunization schedule in all countries, due to the extremely high yearly mortality toll for pneumococcal diseases in the world (1.6 million deaths estimated). Conjugate vaccines with additional serotypes are in advanced stage of development or under evaluation. These new products need to be compared with the existing vaccine, following WHO recommendations regarding correlates of protection, in order to show their possibility to substitute the current vaccine obtaining the same impressive level of efficacy and effectiveness.

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    • "This vaccine was used to prevent pediatric pneumococcal disease. After immunization with PCV7 had been ongoing for more than a decade all over the world, it was demonstrated to be very effective in reducing mortality related to pneumococcal disease, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia , and otitis media in children [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]. Immunization with PCV7 also reduced penicillin nonsusceptible strains of pneumococcus and vaccine type pneumococcus colonization in the nasopharynx. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To investigate the impact of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population. Study Design. Retrospective ecological study. Methods. This study used Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000-2009. Every child under 17 years old who received tubes during this 10-year period was identified and analyzed. The tube insertion rates in different age groups and the risk to receive tubes in different birth cohorts before and after the release of the vaccine in 2005 were compared. Results. The tube insertion rates for children under 17 years of age ranged from 21.6 to 31.9 for 100,000 persons/year. The tube insertion rate of children under 2 years old decreased significantly after 2005 in period effect analysis (β = −0.074, P < 0.05, and the negative β value means a downward trend) and increased in children 2 to 9 years old throughout the study period (positive β values which mean upward trends, P < 0.05). The rate of tube insertion was lower in 2004-2005 and 2006-2007 birth cohorts than that of 2002-2003 birth cohort (RR = 0.90 and 0.21, 95% CI 0.83-0.97 and 0.19-0.23, resp.). Conclusion. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may reduce the risk of tube insertion for children of later birth cohorts. The vaccine may have the protective effect on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population.
    04/2015; 2015:1-8. DOI:10.1155/2015/248678
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    ABSTRACT: PCV7 use in the U.S. has led to notable decreases in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We examined PCV7 influence on IPD mortality for all age groups using National Multiple-Cause-of-Death data (1990-2005). Age-specific mortality rates were compared before and after PCV7 use. Average decreases in age-adjusted mortality rates for meningitis and septicemia accelerated post-PCV7, the greatest decline observed in septicemia-related deaths. The youngest and oldest age groups experienced large decreases in age-specific mortality rates after the introduction of PCV7. Mortality rate decline across all age groups strengthens evidence of vaccine-induced herd immunity and provides additional information for cost-benefit analyses of PCV7.
    Vaccine 10/2009; 28(4):889-92. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.121 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    Expert Review of Vaccines 03/2010; 9(3):229-36. DOI:10.1586/erv.10.6 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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