Heterogeneous in vivo expression of clumping factor A and capsular polysaccharide by Staphylococcus aureus: implications for vaccine design.
ABSTRACT There is a clear unmet medical need for a vaccine that would prevent infections from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). To validate antigens as potential vaccine targets it has to be demonstrated that the antigens are expressed in vivo. Using murine bacteremia and wound infection models, we demonstrate that the expression of clumping factor A (ClfA) and capsular polysaccharide antigens are heterogeneous and dependent on the challenge strains examined and the in vivo microenvironment. We also demonstrate opsonophagocitic activity mediated by either antigen is not impeded by the presence of the other antigen. The data presented in this report support a multiantigen approach for the development of a prophylactic S. aureus vaccine to ensure broad coverage against this versatile pathogen.
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ABSTRACT: The Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) protein clumping factor A (ClfA) has been shown to be a critical virulence factor in several experimental models of infection. This report describes the generation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation of a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) against ClfA. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that MAb 12-9 recognized ClfA protein expressed by all of the clinical S. aureus strains obtained from a variety of sources. In assays measuring whole-cell S. aureus binding to human fibrinogen, MAb 12-9 inhibited S. aureus binding by over 90% and displaced up to 35% of the previously adherent S. aureus bacteria. Furthermore, a single infusion of MAb 12-9 was protective against an intravenous challenge with a methicillin-resistant strain of S. aureus in a murine sepsis model (P < 0.0001). These data suggest that anti-ClfA MAb 12-9 should be further investigated as a novel immunotherapy for the treatment and prevention of life-threatening S. aureus infections.Infection and Immunity 12/2003; 71(12):6864-70. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Controversy persists over the role that the capsular polysaccharide plays in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. To address this issue, we compared the mouse virulence of S. aureus Reynolds and capsule-defective mutant strains cultivated under conditions of high or low capsule expression. Strain Reynolds cells cultivated on Columbia salt agar plates expressed approximately 100-fold more type 5 capsular polysaccharide than did cells cultivated in Columbia salt broth. The relative virulence of strain Reynolds and its capsule-defective mutants after growth on either solid or liquid medium was examined in mice challenged intraperitoneally or intravenously. The results indicated that agar-grown Reynolds cells were cleared from the bloodstream of mice less readily than broth-grown Reynolds cells. When the parental and mutant strains were cultivated on solid medium, strain Reynolds sustained a higher level of bacteremia than did the capsular mutants. We performed in vitro opsonophagocytic killing assays to determine whether staphylococcal virulence for mice correlated with resistance to phagocytosis. S. aureus Reynolds cultivated on solid medium was susceptible to phagocytic killing only in the presence of specific capsular antibodies and complement. Strain Reynolds grown in broth showed opsonic requirements for phagocytic killing that were similar to those of the capsular mutants (grown in broth or on agar); i.e., the bacteria were opsonized for phagocytosis by nonimmune serum with complement activity. These studies indicate that optimal expression of capsule enhances bacterial virulence in the mouse model of bacteremia, probably by rendering the organisms resistant to opsonophagocytic killing by leukocytes.Infection and Immunity 12/1998; 66(11):5183-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous bacterial species that causes serious disease in certain settings. S. aureus disease is difficult to treat, and antibiotic-resistant strains have become common. A vaccine to protect against infection would therefore be beneficial. However, the virulence of S. aureus is determined by a number of different factors, which makes design of a widely effective vaccine difficult. Here, various bacterial virulence factors and attempts to develop vaccines based on these factors are briefly reviewed. In particular, the success of a Phase 3 clinical study of a vaccine directed at capsular polysaccharides types 5 and 8 is discussed.Vaccine 05/2006; 24 Suppl 2:S2-65-9. · 3.49 Impact Factor