Heterogeneous in vivo expression of clumping factor A and capsular polysaccharide by Staphylococcus aureus: implications for vaccine design.
ABSTRACT There is a clear unmet medical need for a vaccine that would prevent infections from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). To validate antigens as potential vaccine targets it has to be demonstrated that the antigens are expressed in vivo. Using murine bacteremia and wound infection models, we demonstrate that the expression of clumping factor A (ClfA) and capsular polysaccharide antigens are heterogeneous and dependent on the challenge strains examined and the in vivo microenvironment. We also demonstrate opsonophagocitic activity mediated by either antigen is not impeded by the presence of the other antigen. The data presented in this report support a multiantigen approach for the development of a prophylactic S. aureus vaccine to ensure broad coverage against this versatile pathogen.
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus (n=157) isolated from intramammary infections in Argentine dairy areas were evaluated for presence of cap5 and cap8 loci. Isolates carrying cap5 and cap8 were serotyped using specific antisera. Sixty four percent of the isolates were genotyped as cap5 or cap8 and 50% of them expressed CP5 or 8.Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 07/2012; 43(3):1010-4. · 0.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Developing a universal vaccine for S. aureus is a top priority but to date we have only had failures in human clinical trials. Given the plethora of bacterial virulence factors, broad range of the health of humans at-risk for infections, lack of any information regarding immune effectors mediating protection for any manifestation of S. aureus infection and overall competence of this organism as a colonizer, commensal and pathogen, we may just simply have to accept the fact that we will not get a universal vaccine. Antigenic variation is a major challenge for some vaccine targets and for many conserved targets the organism can easily decrease or even eliminate expression to avoid immune effectors without compromise to infectivity and ability to cause disease. Studies of human immune responses similarly have been unable to identify any clear mediators of immunity and data from such studies can only eliminate those found not to be associated with protection or that might serve as a marker for individuals with a higher level of resistance to infection. Animal studies are not predictive of success in humans and unlikely will be except in hindsight if and when we develop an efficacious vaccine. Successful vaccines for other bacteria based on capsular polysaccharides have not worked to date for S. aureus, and laboratory studies combining antibody to the major capsular serotypes and the other S. aureus surface polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, unexpectedly showed interference not augmentation of immunity. Potential pathways toward vaccine development do exist but for the foreseeable future will be based on empiric approaches derived from laboratory-based in vitro and animal tests and not on inducing a known immune effector that predicts human resistance to infection.Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 06/2013; 9(9).
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent mastitis pathogen in Argentina and worldwide. Lack of effectiveness of traditional control measures based on milking hygiene and antibiotic therapy against this organism has led to the development of alternatives directed to prevent the disease. Among them, the manipulation of host immune mechanisms through vaccination has been explored. The identification of virulence factors able to stimulate host immune defenses is key to developing a rational vaccine. S. aureus has multiple virulence factors that interact with the host at different stages of an intramammary infection. The use of some of these factors as immunogens has been shown to elicit protective responses in the host. The structure, function, and use as immunogens of S. aureus virulence factors considered to be relevant at different stages of intrammamary infections caused by this organism are reviewed in this article.Revista Argentina de microbiología 45(2):119-30. · 0.54 Impact Factor