Heterogeneous in vivo expression of clumping factor A and capsular polysaccharide by Staphylococcus aureus: implications for vaccine design.
ABSTRACT There is a clear unmet medical need for a vaccine that would prevent infections from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). To validate antigens as potential vaccine targets it has to be demonstrated that the antigens are expressed in vivo. Using murine bacteremia and wound infection models, we demonstrate that the expression of clumping factor A (ClfA) and capsular polysaccharide antigens are heterogeneous and dependent on the challenge strains examined and the in vivo microenvironment. We also demonstrate opsonophagocitic activity mediated by either antigen is not impeded by the presence of the other antigen. The data presented in this report support a multiantigen approach for the development of a prophylactic S. aureus vaccine to ensure broad coverage against this versatile pathogen.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was the design of a novel adjuvanted system for vaccination against S. aureus-mediated infections: in particular, poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles were developed in order to efficiently load and boost a sub-unit model vaccine, namely a purified recombinant collagen binding bacterial adhesin fragment (CNA19). At first, the assessment of the actual immunogenicity of free CNA19 via subcutaneous administration was evaluated, in order to consider it as subunit antigen model. Secondly, for the development of CNA19 loaded PLGA nanoparticles, a preliminary study was focused on the production of well-formed nanoparticles by w/o/w double emulsion method exploiting ultrasonication cycles under mild conditions, then the optimization of the freeze-drying conditions and different CNA19 loading methods were considered (encapsulation, adsorption of on blank or CNA19 encapsulated nanoparticles). The set-up preparation method (process yield of about 83%) permitted to obtain CNA19 loaded nanoparticles with spherical shape, narrow size distribution (187.41±51.2nm), a slightly negative zeta-potential (-2.91±0.64mV) and to elicit satisfactory protein encapsulation efficiency (75.91±4.22%) and loading capacity (8.59±0.33μg CNA19/nanoparticles mg). Then, CNA19 loaded PLGA nanoparticles were characterized by (i) an in-vitro release test performed at different temperatures, namely 4°C, 25°C and 37°C, testing the antigen integrity (SDS-Page) and activity (ELISA); (ii) an in-vitro stability study in terms of dimension and surface charge performed in a 21 days period of time. At 37°C there was evidence of a sustained release of the antigen, in active form, for almost 240h with a burst release of about 20% in the first 2hours. At 4°C stability tests and activity assays allowed to identify storage conditions useful to maintain CNA19 activity and easily NP re-suspendability with intact physical characteristics. Furthermore the evaluation of CNA19 loaded nanoparticles citotoxicity (up to 10.652mg PLGA/ml) by MTT assay and the study of cellular up-take assessed on human fibroblasts confirmed the feasibility to formulate a dosage form useful for vaccination against S. aureus-mediated infections.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 05/2013; · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus can cause severe life threatening invasive diseases. The principal immune effector mechanism by which humans are protected from Gram positive bacteria such as S. aureus is antigen specific antibody- and complement-dependent opsonophagocytosis. This process can be measured in vitro using the opsonophagocytic antibody assay (OPA), which is a complex assay composed of live S. aureus bacteria, a complement source, phagocytic effector cells such as differentiated HL-60 cells, and test serum. In this report, we investigated the impact on the OPA of S. aureus surface antigens capsular polysaccharides (CP) and protein A (SpA). We demonstrated that higher CP expression renders bacteria more resistant to non-specific opsonophagocytic killing than increased SpA expression, suggesting that the expression of capsular polysaccharides may be the more important immune evasion strategy for S. aureus. Bacteria that were not fully encapsulated were highly susceptible to non-specific killing in the assay in the absence of immune serum. This non-specific killing was prevented by growing the bacteria under conditions that increased capsular polysaccharide levels on the surface of the bacteria. In contrast, the level of SpA expression had no detectable effect on non-specific killing in OPA. Using anti-CP antibodies we demonstrated type-specific killing in OPA of both MRSA and MSSA clinical isolates. SpA expression on the cell surface did not interfere with OPA activity, providing evidence that despite the role of SpA in sequestering antibodies by their Fc region, killing is easily accomplished in the presence of high titered anti-capsular polysaccharide antibodies. This highlights the role of CP as an important immune evasion mechanism and supports the inclusion of capsular polysaccharide antigens in the formulation of multi-component prophylactic vaccines against S. aureus.Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 12/2012; 9(3).
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is unrestrictedly found in humans and in animal species that maintain thermal homeostasis. Inadequate cleaning of processing equipment or inappropriate handling can contaminate processed food and cause severe food poisoning. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a potent superantigenic exotoxin, is produced by 50% of clinical isolates of S. aureus and is associated with massive food poisoning and with the induction of toxic shock syndrome. RESULTS: A gene sequence encoding a recombinant SEB (rSEB), devoid of superantigenic activity, was successfully cloned and expressed in a cytoplasmic or a secreted form in the food-grade lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis. The recombinant protein detected in the cytoplasm or in the culture medium exhibited the expected molecular mass and was recognized by a SEB-polyclonal antibody. Oral immunization with the recombinant L. lactis strains induced a protective immune response in a murine model of S. aureus infection. Immunized mice survived intraperitoneal challenge with an S. aureus SEB-producer strain. Counts of S. aureus in the spleen of rSEB-immunized mice were significantly reduced. The rSEB-immunized mice showed significant titers of anti-SEB IgA and IgG in stools and serum, respectively. Both recombinant L. lactis strains were able to elicit cellular or systemic immune responses in mice, with no significant difference if rSEB was produced in its cytoplasmic or secreted form. However, recombinant L. lactis expressing the cytoplasmic rSEB increased the survival rate of the challenged mice by 43%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show the vaccine efficacy of L. lactis carrying an attenuated SEB, in a murine model, following lethal S. aureus challenge.Microbial Cell Factories 04/2013; 12(1):32. · 3.31 Impact Factor