Isolated tumor cells in breast cancer sentinel lymph nodes: displacement or metastases? An immunohistochemical study
Department of Pathology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands.Human pathology (Impact Factor: 2.77). 03/2009; 40(6):778-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2008.10.021
The tumorigenic origin and progression capacity of isolated tumor cells in breast cancer sentinel lymph nodes are uncertain. True lymph node metastases are often associated with aberrant protein expression by means of immunohistochemistry. Therefore, evaluation of isolated tumor cells by immunohistochemistry for proteins often overexpressed in breast cancer such as cyclin D1 and p53 could provide relevant information with regard to the malignant potential of these cells. Of 383 consecutive patients with primary invasive breast cancer and sentinel lymph node involvement, 40 had isolated tumor cells in the sentinel lymph nodes, from which 16 sentinel lymph nodes contained isolated tumor cells (n = 16) in newly cut sections that could successfully be immunostained for cyclin D1 and p53. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the primary tumor as well as on the isolated tumor cells in the sentinel lymph nodes. Similarly stained sections of patients with sentinel lymph nodes micro- (n = 15) and macrometastases (n = 15) served as controls. Sentinel lymph node isolated tumor cells as a group showed significantly lower expression of cyclin D1 and p53 compared with micro- and macrometastases. Comparing cyclin D1 expression of the primary tumor with the corresponding sentinel lymph node metastases showed an increased expression in micro- and macrometastases (P = .08 and P = .0025, respectively) compared with the corresponding primary tumor. In patients with sentinel lymph node isolated tumor cells, however, there was no substantial difference in cyclin D1 expression between the primary tumor and the corresponding isolated tumor cells. This supports the hypothesis that some of these cells may be displaced benign cells or concern tumor cells with limited malignant potential compared with micro- and macrometastases.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We utilize speech information to improve the quality of audio/visual communications, such as videotelephony, videoconferencing, and multimedia. In particular, marriage of speech processing and image processing can solve problems related to lip synchronization. Two main techniques proposed in this paper are: speech-assisted interpolation and speech-assisted coding of talking head video. Audio/video sequences are presented to demonstrate our techniques. 1 Introduction The processing and coding of talking head video can be facilitated by taking into account the associated speech information. Previous work includes speechdriven talking heads [Lippman, 1981], [Welsh et al., 1990], and integrated coding of speech and mouth images [Morishima et al., 1989], [Shah and Marshall, 1994]. In this paper, we exploit audio/visual interaction to improve lip synchronization (the synchronization between the lip movements and the acoustic speech) in talking head video. Two main techniques we propose are...Circuits, Systems and Computers, 1977. Conference Record. 1977 11th Asilomar Conference on 03/1999; DOI:10.1109/ACSSC.1994.471605
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate intraoperative sentinel node touch imprint cytology (IOSNTI) for breast cancer. Three hundred and fifty-five patients with invasive breast cancer (pT1N0, lobular or ductal subtype) were included in our study. IOSNTI consists of touching glass slides to the surfaces of interest after gently pressing the spatially localized specimen, taken according to predetermined conditions, in order to perform a final histological examination consisting of H&E and immunohistochemical staining. The total sensitivity (Se) of IOSNTI was 36% and 15% of patients with nodal metastasis went undetected during the intraoperative examination. Sensitivity was significantly lower for the oldest patients (aged over 57 years: 25%), small tumors (smaller than 12 mm: 23.3%), lobular subtypes (8.3%), in the absence of vascular emboli (33%) and for detection of micrometastases (10%). This simple, fast and relatively inexpensive method could be combined with intraoperative molecular biology methods in populations in which cytology is less efficient and produces negative results.Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 04/2011; 20(2):119-23. DOI:10.1016/j.breast.2010.08.004 · 2.38 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In breast cancer, it has been shown that pN0(i+) and pN1mi have a comparable negative impact on disease-free survival, compared with pN0. However, pN0(i+) is considered to be a heterogeneous group. We determined the effect of metastatic size and microanatomic location within the pN0(i+) group on breast cancer recurrence. We included all Dutch breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1998-2005 with favorable primary tumor characteristics and a final nodal status of pN0(i+). For this analysis, only patients without adjuvant systemic therapy were eligible (n = 513). Presence of single tumor cells versus cell clusters, metastatic size and microanatomic location were recorded. Primary endpoint was disease-free survival. Analyses were adjusted for age at diagnosis, tumor size, tumor grade, axillary treatment and hormone receptor status. The 5-year disease-free survival of patients with single tumor cell(s) (n = 93) was 78.6% and with tumor cell cluster(s) (n = 404) 77.1%. The hazard ratio for disease events was 1.05 (95% CI 0.63-1.76) for cell cluster(s) compared with single cell(s). In a Cox regression model, doubling of metastatic tumor size corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.21 (95% CI 1.02-1.43). The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.90 (95% CI 0.54-1.50) for parenchymal (n = 112) versus sinusoidal location (n = 395). Single tumor cells bear similar prognostic information as small tumor cell clusters, even though results do suggest that within the pN0(i+) group, increasing size of nodal involvement is associated with reduced survival. Microanatomic location does not seem to have prognostic relevance.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2011; 131(2):645-51. DOI:10.1007/s10549-011-1771-0 · 3.94 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.