Measuring the Length Distribution of Self-Assembled Lipid Nanotubes by Orientation Control with a High-Frequency Alternating Current Electric Field in Aqueous Solutions
ABSTRACT The present work addresses the length distribution of self-assembled lipid nanotubes (LNTs) by controlling the orientation of the LNTs using an alternating current (ac) electric field in aqueous solutions. The effect of the ac field on the orientation and rotation of individual LNTs was examined to evaluate the optimum orientation frequency by visualizing the individual LNTs in real time. By using the high-frequency ac field, we have successfully measured the length distribution for two different types of LNTs and have quantitatively analyzed the maximum occurrences of the length distribution as well as the extension of the longer length region.
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ABSTRACT: This review article introduces soft nanotubes with controllable diameters and functionalizable surfaces, which are formed by self-organization of well-designed synthetic amphiphiles in some solvents. The soft nanotubes are able to act as meso-scale hosts, and not only encapsulate molecules, macromolecules, and nanomaterials in the nanotube hollow cylinder but also release those encapsulated guests to bulk media. Various spectroscopy and microscopy methods enable us to clarify physical features, dynamic behavior, and stabilities of confined solvents and guests in the nanotube hollow cylinder. Nanobio functions of the soft nanotubes, such as nanocontainers for biologically-responsive drug release and artificial chaperones for refolding assistances of denatured proteins, are also described, comparing with those functions of other supramolecular systems and porous materials. Furthermore, this review article covers more recent topics, photo-functional soft materials, including the soft nanotubes having light-harvesting antenna and light-triggered morphological-transformation abilities. Graphical AbstractJournal of inclusion phenomena and macrocyclic chemistry 06/2014; 79(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s10847-014-0397-3 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although a large number of studies on organic nanotubes have focused on the molecular design of building blocks and their material function, there has been little research that has addressed the function of the nanochannels themselves, such as their encapsulation ability. The dimensions of self-assembled organic nanotubes (S-ONTs) are well compatible with those of diverse nanostructures, including proteins, organic, inorganic or metal nanoparticles, dendrimers, viruses and DNAs. S-ONTs can give rise to a novel research field of mesoscale host-guest science and engineering. More interestingly, S-ONTs can accommodate extremely small liquid volumes on the order of attoliters in their nanochannels. Focusing on the distinctive function and structural characteristics of these nanochannels, herein we describe the recent progress in research on the unique properties of nanochannels that can encapsulate, transport and release biomacromolecules as well as exert a confinement effect on water.Polymer Journal 08/2014; 46(12). DOI:10.1038/pj.2014.72 · 1.55 Impact Factor
Chemical Reviews 10/2014; 114(20):10217-10291. DOI:10.1021/cr400085m · 45.66 Impact Factor