Transmission probabilities of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2, effect of male circumcision and interaction: a longitudinal study in a township of South Africa
ABSTRACT A synergy between HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections has been reported in observational studies. The objectives of this study were to estimate the per-sex-act female-to-male transmission probabilities (FtoMTPs) of HIV and HSV-2, the effect of each infection on the FtoMTP of the other and the effect of male circumcision on these FtoMTPs.
We used longitudinal data collected during the male circumcision trial conducted in Orange Farm (South Africa).
Results were obtained by specific mathematical modeling of HIV and HSV-2 statuses of the men as functions of their sexual behavior and male circumcision status. The model took into account an estimation of the HIV and HSV-2 statuses of each of their female partners. Confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using a bootstrap resampling method.
The HIV and HSV-2 FtoMTPs, during an unprotected sexual contact for an uncircumcised male in the absence of the other virus in both partners, were 0.0047 (95% CI: 0.0014-0.017) and 0.0067 (95% CI: 0.0028-0.014), respectively. HSV-2 in either partner increased HIV FtoMTP with a relative risk (RR) of 3.0 (95% CI: 1.01-7.3). Conversely, HIV in either partner increased HSV-2 FtoMTP (RR= 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1- 6.3). Male circumcision significantly decreased these probabilities with RRs of 0.24 (95% CI: 0.11-0.44) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.36-0.91), respectively.
This study gave the first estimates of HSV-2 per-sex-act FtoMTPs in Africa. It demonstrated a synergy between HIV and HSV-2 infections and a protective effect of male circumcision on HSV-2 acquisition by males.
- SourceAvailable from: Wim Delva[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction A decreased frequency of unprotected sex during episodes of concurrent relationships may dramatically reduce the role of concurrency in accelerating the spread of HIV. Such a decrease could be the result of coital dilution – the reduction in per-partner coital frequency from additional partners – and/or increased condom use during concurrency. To study the effect of concurrency on the frequency of unprotected sex, we examined sexual behaviour data from three communities with high HIV prevalence around Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 2011 to February 2012 using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing to reconstruct one-year sexual histories, with a focus on coital frequency and condom use. Participants were randomly sampled from a previous TB and HIV prevalence survey. Mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 527 sexually active adults reporting on 1210 relationship episodes to evaluate the effect of concurrency status on consistent condom use and coital frequency. Results The median of the per-partner weekly average coital frequency was 2 (IQR: 1–3), and consistent condom use was reported for 36% of the relationship episodes. Neither per-partner coital frequency nor consistent condom use changed significantly during episodes of concurrency (aIRR=1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99–1.24 and aOR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.38–2.68, respectively). Being male, coloured, having a tertiary education, and having a relationship between 2 weeks and 9 months were associated with higher coital frequencies. Being coloured, and having a relationship lasting for more than 9 months, was associated with inconsistent condom use. Conclusions We found no evidence for coital dilution or for increased condom use during concurrent relationship episodes in three communities around Cape Town with high HIV prevalence. Given the low levels of self-reported consistent condom use, our findings suggest that if the frequency of unprotected sex with each of the sexual partners is sustained during concurrent relationships, HIV-positive individuals with concurrent partners may disproportionately contribute to onward HIV transmission.Journal of the International AIDS Society 04/2013; 16(1):18034. DOI:10.7448/IAS.16.1.18034 · 4.21 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Circumcision is associated with significant reductions in HIV, HSV-2 and HPV infections among men and significant reductions in bacterial vaginosis among their female partners. We assessed the penile (coronal sulci) microbiota in 12 HIV-negative Ugandan men before and after circumcision. Microbiota were characterized using sequence-tagged 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable regions. Taxonomic classification was performed using the RDP Naïve Bayesian Classifier. Among the 42 unique bacterial families identified, Pseudomonadaceae and Oxalobactericeae were the most abundant irrespective of circumcision status. Circumcision was associated with a significant change in the overall microbiota (PerMANOVA p = 0.007) and with a significant decrease in putative anaerobic bacterial families (Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test p = 0.014). Specifically, two families-Clostridiales Family XI (p = 0.006) and Prevotellaceae (p = 0.006)-were uniquely abundant before circumcision. Within these families we identified a number of anaerobic genera previously associated with bacterial vaginosis including: Anaerococcus spp., Finegoldia spp., Peptoniphilus spp., and Prevotella spp. The anoxic microenvironment of the subpreputial space may support pro-inflammatory anaerobes that can activate Langerhans cells to present HIV to CD4 cells in draining lymph nodes. Thus, the reduction in putative anaerobic bacteria after circumcision may play a role in protection from HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(1):e8422. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0008422 · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To study the interactions between two sexually transmitted diseases without remission of the infections, we propose to use Markovian models. One model allows the estimation of the "per-partnership" female-to-male transmission probabilities for each infection, and the other the "per-sex-act" transmission probabilities. These models take into account the essential factors for the propagation of both infections, including the variability according to age of the rates of prevalence in the population of female partners for the male individuals constituting our sample. We estimate transmission probabilities and relative risks (for circumcision, usage of condoms and the effect of one infection on the infectivity of the other) by using the maximum likelihood method. Bootstrap procedures are used to provide confidence intervals for the parameters. We illustrate the new procedures with the study of the interactions between herpes simplex virus type 2 and human immunodeficiency virus by using data from the male circumcision trial that was conducted in Orange Farm (South Africa). The study shows that the probability that a susceptible male individual acquires one of the viruses is significantly higher when he is already infected with the other. Using the Akaike information criterion, we show that the per-partnership model fits the data better than the per-sex-act model. Copyright (c) 2010 Royal Statistical Society and University of Versailles-INSERM-APHP.Applied Statistics 06/2010; 59(4):547-572. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9876.2010.00719.x · 1.42 Impact Factor