Substance abuse, temperament and suicide risk: evidence from a case-control study.

Department of Psychiatry, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Journal of Addictive Diseases (Impact Factor: 1.46). 02/2009; 28(1):13-20. DOI: 10.1080/10550880802544757
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of the current study was to evaluate differences between two matched groups of psychiatric outpatients (those with and those without substance abuse) on clinical variables that previous research has suggested may be associated with substance abuse comorbidity. The sample consisted of 31 consecutively admitted psychiatric outpatients (16 men and 15 women) with substance use comorbidity; controls were 31 outpatients without substance use comorbidity who were matched for sex and age. The patients completed the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-autoquestionnaire version, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Gotland Male Depression Scale, and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. As a group, the substance abusers had a different temperament profile (higher dysthymic/cyclothymic/anxiety and irritability and lower hyperthymic traits), a higher hopelessness, global psychopathology severity, impulsivity/aggression, and suicide risk (higher lifetime suicide ideation and suicide attempts), and were more frequently depressed. However, few differences were significant and almost all were of small magnitude. Furthermore, bipolar disorders type II were overrepresented in the abuser group compared to the control group (45% vs. 22%, respectively).

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives and Methods. This was an observational study of the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) in a sample of 35 (30 women and 5 men) patients with moderate-to-severe "male depression" (Gotland Scale for Male Depression (GSMD) ≥ 13) comorbid with unipolar mood disorder (dysthymia and major depression) or anxiety disorder. Outcome measures were GSMD and BHS (Beck Hopelessness Scale) score changes from baseline. Results. Patients had a strong response to STPP on the GSMD (estimated mean score change (± SE) = -9.08 ± 2.74; P < 0.01; partial eta squared = 0.50), but not on the BHS (estimated mean score change (± SE) = -0.92 ± 1.55; P = 0.57; partial eta squared = 0.03). BHS score changes were significantly associated with GSMD score changes (Pearson's r = 0.56; P < 0.001), even when controlling for the severity of hopelessness at the baseline (partial r = 0.62; P < 0.001). Conclusions. STPP proved to be effective in patients suffering from "male depression" although hopelessness was only marginally reduced by this treatment which points to the need to better understand how STPP can be involved in the reduction of suicide risk.
    Depression research and treatment 01/2013; 2013:408983. DOI:10.1155/2013/408983
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present several new results which pertain to the successes of center projection in maximal center gauge (MCG). In particular, we show why any center vortex, inserted "by hand" into a thermalized lattice configuration, will be among the set of vortices found by the center projection procedure. We show that this "vortex-finding property" is lost when gauge-field configurations are fixed to Landau gauge prior to the maximal center gauge fixing; this fact accounts for the loss of center dominance in the corresponding projected configurations. Variants of maximal center (adjoint Landau) gauge are proposed which correctly identify relevant center vortices.
    Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements 04/2000; DOI:10.1016/S0920-5632(00)91727-4 · 0.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship between affective temperaments and clinical mood disorders and to summarize the earlier and most recent studies on affective temperaments in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Current research findings show that specific affective temperament types (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious) are the subsyndromal (trait-related) manifestations and commonly the antecedents of minor and major mood disorders. Up to 20% of the population has some kind of marked affective temperaments; depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperament is more frequent in women, whereas hyperthymic and irritable temperaments predominate among men. Molecular genetic studies show a strong involvement of the central serotonergic (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments) and dopaminergic (hyperthymic temperament) regulation, suggesting that the genetic potential of major mood episodes lies in these temperaments. Premorbid affective temperament types have an important role in the clinical evolution of minor and major mood episodes including the direction of the polarity and the symptom formation of acute mood episodes. They can also significantly affect the long-term course and outcome including suicidality and other forms of self-destructive behaviours such as substance use and eating disorders.
    Current opinion in psychiatry 10/2009; 23(1):12-8. DOI:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32833299d4 · 3.55 Impact Factor