Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer: Danish Population Based Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women.
Population based cohort study.
Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics.
54,362 women with infertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. Included in the analysis were 156 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (cases) and 1241 subcohort members identified in the cohort during follow-up in 2006.
Effect of four groups of fertility drugs (gonadotrophins, clomifene citrate, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and gonadotrophin releasing hormone) on overall risk of ovarian cancer after adjustment for potential confounding factors.
Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity.
No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Susanne Kjaer, Jul 05, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Long-term effects of ovarian stimulation for IVF on the risk of ovarian malignancies are unknown. We identified a nationwide historic cohort of 19,146 women who received IVF treatment in the Netherlands between 1983 and 1995, and a comparison group of 6006 subfertile women not treated with IVF. In 1997-1999, data on reproductive risk factors were obtained from 65% of women and data on subfertility (treatment) were obtained from the medical records. The incidence of ovarian malignancies (including borderline ovarian tumours) through 2007 was assessed through linkage with disease registries. The risk of ovarian malignancies in the IVF group was compared with risks in the general population and the subfertile comparison group. After a median follow-up of 14.7 years, the risk of borderline ovarian tumours was increased in the IVF group compared with the general population [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-2.56]. The overall SIR for invasive ovarian cancer was not significantly elevated, but increased with longer follow-up after first IVF (P = 0.02); the SIR was 3.54 (95% CI = 1.62-6.72) after 15 years. The risks of borderline ovarian tumours and of all ovarian malignancies combined in the IVF group were significantly increased compared with risks in the subfertile comparison group (hazard ratios = 4.23; 95% CI = 1.25-14.33 and 2.14; 95% CI = 1.07-4.25, respectively, adjusted for age, parity and subfertility cause). Ovarian stimulation for IVF may increase the risk of ovarian malignancies, especially borderline ovarian tumours. More large cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the effect of IVF treatment characteristics.Human Reproduction 12/2011; 26(12):3456-65. DOI:10.1093/humrep/der322 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous, rapidly progressive, highly lethal disease of low prevalence. The etiology remains poorly understood. Numerous risk factors have been identified, the most prominent involving an inherited predisposition in 10% of cases. Women with germline mutations associated with Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer and Lynch syndromes have dramatically elevated risks (up to 46% and 12%, respectively). Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy is the best method to prevent ovarian cancer in these high-risk women. Significant risk reduction is also seen in the general population who use oral contraceptives. Since up to 89% patients with early-stage disease have symptoms prior to diagnosis, increased awareness of the medical community may facilitate further workup in patients who otherwise would have had a delay. Despite enormous effort, there is no proof that routine screening for ovarian cancer in either the high-risk or general populations with serum markers, sonograms, or pelvic examinations decreases mortality. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether any novel biomarkers, or panels of markers, have clinical utility in early detection. Prospective clinical trials have to be designed and completed prior to offering of any of these new diagnostic tests. CA125 is currently the only biomarker recommended for monitoring of therapy as well as detection of recurrence. This commentary provides an overview on the background, screening and surveillance of ovarian cancer.Gynecologic Oncology 10/2010; 119(1):7-17. DOI:10.1016/j.ygyno.2010.06.003 · 3.69 Impact Factor