New options for metastatic breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Patients with advanced breast cancer are living longer and receiving multiple lines of chemotherapy; however, they eventually develop resistance to the agents. Two more agents have been approved for the treatment of breast cancer and will provide additional treatment options for such patients. Ixabepilone represents a new class of cytotoxic chemotherapy called the epothilones. Ixabepilone was approved for use as a single agent for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer resistant to taxanes, anthracyclines, and capecitabine, as well as in combination with capecitabine for disease refractory to taxanes and anthracyclines. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, was approved for first-line treatment of HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer in combination with paclitaxel. Understanding the efficacy, toxicity, and administration of the agents is crucial for oncology nurses to optimally educate and treat patients with advanced breast cancer.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated a high surface area fractional precipitation process to achieve the effective purification of paclitaxel, an anticancer agent, from plant cell cultures. Fractional precipitation experiments were performed by increasing the surface area per working volume (S/V) to 0.428/mm using a variety of ion exchange resins. When the cation exchange resin Amberlite IR 120 H was used, the highest purity (>85%) and yield (>80%) of paclitaxel could be obtained in the shortest fractional precipitation time (within 6 h). Use of an ion exchange resin resulted in the production of smaller paclitaxel precipitates since it inhibited the growth of particles. When Amberlite IR 120 H in particular was used, paclitaxel particles were 2 ∼ 3 times smaller (less than 30 μm radius) than those obtained in the absence of ion exchange resin. Paclitaxel particle size was inversely correlated with the zeta potential of the fractional precipitation solution after the addition of ion exchange resin.Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 17(5). · 1.28 Impact Factor