Radiographic methods for evaluating osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

INSERM, ERI12, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, 1 rue des Louvels 80037 Amiens, France; Service de Rhumatologie, Hôpital Nord, CHU Amiens, 80 054 Amiens Cedex 1, France.
Joint, bone, spine: revue du rhumatisme (Impact Factor: 2.25). 03/2009; 76(3):241-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2008.07.017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reproducible methods for the radiological assessment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures, defined based on accurate criteria, are needed in everyday practice and in therapeutic trials and epidemiological studies.
To describe and to evaluate methods for osteoporotic vertebral fracture assessment based on standard radiographs or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to determine the role for each method in clinical practice, therapeutic trials, and epidemiological studies.
A review written by a rheumatologist based on his clinical experience and on a literature review was submitted to four experts. Studies in English or French published between 1975 and February 2008 were retrieved from Medline using the keywords vertebral fracture, osteoporosis, vertebral deformity, and vertebral fracture assessment.
One hundred forty-nine articles were selected and read in their full-text version. There was no consensus regarding the definition of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The following methods were evaluated: visual assessment, Genant's semi-quantitative assessment, Jiang's algorithm-based qualitative method, morphometric radiography, and DXA of the spine. In everyday practice, Genant's semi-quantitative assessment on standard radiographs may provide useful information on the severity and prognosis of osteoporosis. DXA done for bone mineral density measurement may detect vertebral fractures in asymptomatic patients. Assessment of standard radiographs remains the reference standard for diagnosing vertebral fractures in patients with suggestive symptoms (e.g., pain in the thoracic or lumbar spine, height loss, or thoracic kyphosis). For therapeutic trials and epidemiological studies, Genant's semi-quantitative assessment used by a trained and experienced observer is the preferred method, based on its good reproducibility and ability to differentiate fractures from other deformities. However, thousands of radiographs may be needed, making routine interpretation by an expert impractical. A visual semi-quantitative method may be used to separate normal radiographs from radiographs showing possible or obvious fractures, which can then be read by an expert. Alternatively, radiomorphometric indices can be determined on digitized radiographs in combination with a semi-quantitative assessment, with discordant cases being reviewed by an expert. We do not recommend Jiang's method at present, as it is still undergoing validation.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of sagittal MR localizer (MR-loc), in terms of diagnostic accuracy and intra- and inter-observer agreement in the detection of vertebral fractures (VFs). Three-hundred MR examinations of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine were randomly collected. A semi-quantitative approach was used and morphometric analysis was performed when a VF was suspected. MR-loc images were evaluated blindly by three radiologists in two different sessions. A full diagnostic sagittal T1-weighted fast spin echo MR sequence was used as standard of reference (RS). Degenerative arthritis was also scored on RS. Only vertebral bodies which were assessable by both MR-loc and RS were considered for the analysis. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), Cohen kappa statistic, and linear-by-linear association were used for statistical analysis. Kappa values were compared by means of the z distribution. A total of 2186 vertebrae were analyzed in 300 MRI exams (147 males, 153 females, 59.4±16.4 y.o.). Sixty-seven out of 2136 (3.1%) VFs were identified in 23/300 (7.7%) patients submitted to MRI. In the detection of VFs, sensitivity and specificity of MR-loc were both 100% (accuracy AUROC=1.000). Inter-observer agreement was excellent (k=0.938±0.013), while intra-observer agreement was perfect (k=1.000). The diagnostic performance was independent from degenerative arthritis, vertebral level, type and grade of VFs. MR-loc is a simple but accurate tool in the detection of VFs. It should be introduced for systematic evaluation in the detection of VFs in MR examinations performed in daily clinical practice.
    Bone 01/2014; · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Population-based studies performed with vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) morphometric technology are lacking in postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this study, we show a lower than expected prevalence of vertebral fractures, a high prevalence of minor vertebral deformities, and a clear association with clinical and densitometric parameters indicating the usefulness of this approach. Adequate epidemiological data on the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VF) is essential in studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Routine DXA-assisted VFA may be useful to determine the presence of VF. However, population-based studies performed with this technology are lacking. We aimed to assess the prevalence of VF and minor deformities in 2,968 postmenopausal women aged 59-70 years from a population-based cohort. VFA and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were conducted, and McCloskey criteria (vertebral heights under 3 SD from reference values) confirmed with the Genant method were used to define VF. Additionally, minor vertebral deformities (vertebral heights between -2 and -2.99 SD) were evaluated. The prevalence of VF was 4.3 %, and 17 % of the participants had minor vertebral deformities. Low BMD was frequently observed in women with VF, with 48 %, and 42 % of participants showing osteoporosis and osteopenia. Minor vertebral deformities were observed in nearly 40 % of women with VF. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, history of previous fracture, osteoporotic BMD, receiving anti-osteoporotic treatment, and current use of glucocorticoids were significantly associated with VF. Although the VFA approach showed a lower than expected prevalence of VF in our cohort, its association with clinical and densitometric parameters may be useful to identify women at risk for developing fragility fractures and may therefore justify its use in longitudinal studies. The high prevalence of minor vertebral deformities detected in patients with VF indicates the need to evaluate this type of deformity as a risk factor for further skeletal fractures.
    Osteoporosis International 03/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On retrospective basis, we investigated the detection of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) without radiologic collapse using a modified Yoshida's classification, which was designed by the authors. We observed 82 cases in 76 patients with confirmed OVFs without collapse at the thoracolumbar junction. The following factors were measured: age, gender, body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), bone mineral density (BMD, mg/cm(3)), type of a modified Yoshida's classification. The correct diagnosis rate for the presence and location of OVFs and the correct diagnosis rate according to the morphological type by a modified Yoshida's classification of the OVFs were analyzed. The mean BMI was 21.2; mean BMD, 44.1; and T-score, -4.4. As for the four subtypes of anterior cortical morphological change, there were 14 cases of the protruding type, 12 cases of the indented type, 5 cases of the disrupted type and 8 cases of the prow type. As for the three subtypes of endplate depression, there were 20 cases of upper endplate depression, 12 cases of lower endplate depression and 11 cases of endplate slippage type. According to the examiners, there was a significant difference between being informed before and after the modified Yoshida's classification. For the relationship of examiners and the type of fracture, there was a significant difference between being informed before and after the modified Yoshida's classification, particularly in the protruding type and the upper plate type. A modified Yoshida's classification can be helpful for the diagnosis of OVFs without radiologic collapse in a simple radiograph.
    Journal of bone metabolism. 11/2013; 20(2):89-94.


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